Skip to content

掠来的地标:巴黎圣母院如何盗自东方



我们翻译这篇文章的理由


建筑是凝固的人类文明史。本文从建筑学角度出发,追根溯源,将十字军东征、白人至上主义与恐伊斯兰情结的背景结合,试图揭露西方标榜的“文明灯塔”实际上是对伊斯兰教文化遗产的挪用。联系当下,深陷新冠疫情泥潭、大选前民调下降等多重麻烦,特朗普政府一面延续中东政策促成了阿联酋与以色列签署和平协议,一面妄图挑起一场新的“对华十字军东征”;背后固有东方崛起的因素,但更深层次上折射的是西方对东方的文明傲慢和对自身利益的考量。几千年前闪烁着哈里发光辉的清真寺,两百年后却易主为天主教堂。在世间目睹了山河变迁、政局动荡的建筑,还在微微闪烁着“文明”的荣光。

——禹琦


👇


掠来的地标:巴黎圣母院如何盗自东方


作者:Oliver Wainwright 

译者:禹琦

校对:小康

策划:小钊 & 禹琦



Looted landmarks: how Notre-Dame, Big Ben and St Mark’s were stolen from the east

掠来的地标:巴黎圣母院、大本钟和圣马可大教堂如何盗自东方

They are beacons of western civilisation. But, says an explosive new book, the designs of Europe’s greatest buildings were plundered from the Islamic world – twin towers, rose windows, vaulted ceilings and all

这些地标是西方文明的灯塔。但是,一本新书石破天惊,称欧洲一些最伟大的建筑设计实际掠自伊斯兰世界,如双塔、玫瑰窗、拱顶等等


‘It’s time someone straightened out the narrative’ … Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris, which is explored in Stealing from the Saracens. Photograph: Pawel Libera

“是时候还原真实的叙事了……”《掠自东方》一书探讨了巴黎圣母院的建筑渊源。


As Notre-Dame cathedral was engulfed by flames last year, thousands bewailed the loss of this great beacon of western civilisation. The ultimate symbol of French cultural identity, the very heart of the nation, was going up in smoke. But Middle East expert Diana Darke was having different thoughts. She knew that the origins of this majestic gothic pile lay not in the pure annals of European Christian history, as many have always assumed, but in the mountainous deserts of Syria, in a village just west of Aleppo to be precise.

去年,一场大火吞噬了巴黎圣母院,成千上万的人对于这座西方文明的宏伟灯塔蒙难而扼腕。巴黎圣母院是法国人文化身份的终极象征、国家的核心,如今却在烟熏火燎中奄奄一息。但是中东专家戴安娜·达克却有着不同的想法。她知道,雄伟的哥特式建筑并非如大众一直认为的那样,单纯起源于欧洲基督教史,而是始于叙利亚多山的沙漠,确切的说是阿勒颇以西的一个村庄。


“Notre-Dame’s architectural design, like all gothic cathedrals in Europe, comes directly from Syria’s Qalb Lozeh fifth-century church,” Darke tweeted on the morning of 16 April, as the dust was still settling in Paris. “Crusaders brought the ‘twin tower flanking the rose window’ concept back to Europe in the 12th century.”

“与欧洲的所有哥特式大教堂一样,巴黎圣母院的建筑设计也源于五世纪叙利亚的杏仁心镇教堂。” 4月16日上午,巴黎尚在烟尘笼罩中,达克发推如是称,“12世纪,十字军将‘玫瑰窗侧双塔立’的设计风格带回了欧洲。”


Twin towers and a rose window … the remnants of Qalb Lozeh church in Syria, the inspiration behind Notre-Dame. Photograph: Bertramz

双塔和一扇玫瑰窗… 叙利亚的杏仁心镇教堂的遗迹,是巴黎圣母院的灵感来源。


It is not only the twin towers and rose window that have their origins in the Middle East, she pointed out, but also the ribbed vaults, pointed arches and even the recipe for stained glass windows. Gothic architecture as we know it owes much more to Arab and Islamic heritage than it does to the rampaging Goths. “I was astonished at the reaction,” says Darke. “I thought more people knew, but there seems to be this great gulf of ignorance about the history of cultural appropriation. Against a backdrop of rising Islamophobia, I thought it was about time someone straightened out the narrative.”

达克指出,除了双塔和玫瑰窗外,肋架拱顶、尖拱甚至彩色玻璃窗也起源于中东。我们认知中的哥特式建筑实际上更应归属于阿拉伯和伊斯兰教的遗产,而不是莽撞的哥特人。“我很惊讶于人们的反应,”达克说,“我以为有更多的人知道这件事,但他们似乎对文化挪用的历史一无所知。在恐伊斯兰情结愈演愈烈的时代背景下,是时候有人理清叙事了。”


And so she has, with Stealing from the Saracens, an exhilarating, meticulously researched book that sheds light on centuries of borrowing, tracing the roots of Europe’s major buildings – from the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey to Chartres cathedral and St Mark’s basilica in Venice – back to their Middle Eastern precedents. It is as much a story of political power, wealth and fashion as it is of religious belief, with tales of looting Crusaders, fashion-conscious bishops and globe-trotting merchants discovering new styles and techniques and bringing them home.

于是,鼓舞人心的《掠自东方》一书就此诞生。作者潜心钻研,揭示了数百年来的文化借鉴,通过从英国的国会大厦和西敏寺、到沙特尔主教座堂和威尼斯的圣马可大教堂,追溯了欧洲主要建筑的根源——中东先例。这既是关于政治博弈、财富积累和时代潮流的故事,也有宗教信仰的叙述;故事里有烧杀抢掠的十字军,紧随风潮的主教,还有周游全球、不断发掘新风格和新技术、并携之回国的商人们。


“Now we have this notion of east and west,” says Darke. “But back then, it wasn’t like that. There were huge cultural exchanges – and most came from the east to the west. Very little went the other way.”

“人类是现在才有东西方的概念的,”达克说,“之前不是这样,东西方曾开展过广泛的文化交流——但大多数是从东方到西方,反之不然。”


 

Masterpiece of geometry … the exquisite interior of Córdoba’s mosque-cathedral. Photograph: Ingo Mehling

几何学的杰作… 科尔多瓦清真寺大教堂的精美内饰。


Given their prevalence in the great cathedrals of Europe, it is easy to imagine that pointed stone arches and soaring ribbed vaults are Christian in origin. But the former dates back to a seventh-century Islamic shrine in Jerusalem, while the latter began in a 10th-century mosque in Andalucia, Spain. In fact, that first known example of ribbed vaulting is still standing. Visitors to the Cordoba Mezquita can marvel at its multiple arches intersecting in a masterpiece of practical geometry and decorative structure, never needing a repair in its thousand-year existence. The vaulted maqsura – the part of the mosque reserved for the ruling caliph – was designed to cast a sacred glow across the leader. However, the official leaflet will tell you little of the building’s Islamic origin, perhaps because it has been a Catholic church since 1236.

尖尖的石拱门和高耸的肋架拱顶在欧洲大教堂中盛行,人们理所当然认为这些起源于基督教。然而,石拱门的历史可追溯到七世纪时耶路撒冷的伊斯兰教圣地,肋架拱顶则起源于十世纪时西班牙安达卢西亚的一个清真寺。实际上,已知的首个肋架拱顶伫立至今。参观科尔多瓦主教座堂的游客对其纵横交叉的多重拱门无不惊叹,视之为实用几何与装饰结构的杰作。它们数千年来屹立不倒,熠熠生辉。清真寺中的拱形隔间当初保留给当权的哈里发专用,旨在向领袖投射圣光。但是,现如今的官方宣传册对其伊斯兰教起源避而不谈,也许是因为自1236年起这里已易主为天主教教堂。 


The pointed arch, meanwhile, was a pragmatic solution to a problem encountered by masons working on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. One of the holiest sites in the Muslim world, it was built in 691 by the ruler of Islam’s first empire. The challenge was how to line up an outer arcade of rounded arches with a smaller inner arcade, while maintaining a horizontal ceiling between them. For the openings to align, the masons had to give the inner arcade tighter arches, forcing them to become pointed. Another world first can be spotted higher up in the shrine, where encircling the dome is an arcade of trefoil arches, the three-lobed style of arch that went on to encrust practically every European cathedral, voraciously adopted as a symbol of the Holy Trinity.

同时,尖拱也是耶路撒冷建造岩石圆顶清真寺的泥瓦匠为解决实际问题而发明的。岩石圆顶清真寺是穆斯林世界最受推崇的圣地之一,由伊斯兰第一帝国的统治者在公元691年下令建造。当时面临的挑战是,如何将圆形拱门的外拱廊与较小的内拱廊对齐,同时保持它们之间天花板的水平。为了使开口对齐,泥瓦匠必须将内拱廊的拱形收紧,形成尖形。圣地高处则是另一番景象:三叶形拱门拱廊环绕着圆顶。几乎所有的欧洲大教堂都采用了类似的设计,这也被普遍认为是圣三一的象征。 


“Again and again,” says Darke, “I am so struck by how much of this stuff that we think of as essentially Christian and European was based on ignorance and misinterpretation of much earlier Islamic forms.” She points out that the enormous influence of the Dome of the Rock was down to the Crusaders of the Middle Ages mistakenly thinking the building was the Temple of Solomon.

达克说:“我一再震惊于我们的无知和误解,我们自认为是基督教或欧式风格的建筑实际上源于更早的伊斯兰建筑设计。”她指出,中世纪的十字军误以为岩石圆顶清真寺是所罗门圣殿,因此影响深远。


Looks familiar? … from left, the interior of Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock, and Temple Church in London. 

眼熟吗?… 左侧是耶路撒冷的岩石圆顶清真寺;右侧是伦敦的圣殿教堂内部。


They used the domed, circular layout of this supposedly Christian shrine as the model for their Templar churches (like the City of London’s round Temple church), even copying the decorative Arabic inscription, which openly chastises Christians for believing in the Trinity rather than in the oneness of God. Their pseudo- Kufic calligraphic patterns went on to adorn French cathedral stonework and the borders of richly woven textiles, with no one aware of what they actually meant.

这种所谓的基督教圣地的圆顶环形布局成为了各圣殿教堂的参考模型(如伦敦的圆形圣殿教堂),甚至连原有的阿拉伯铭文也照抄不误;尽管这些铭文的内容是对信奉圣三一而非神的统一性的基督教徒的直接批判。伪古阿拉伯书法的图案则继续装饰着法国天主教堂的石雕和编织华美的纺织品的边角,亦无人知其底蕴。 


The confusion was spread further by the first printed map of Jerusalem, published in Mainz, Germany, in 1486. It not only mislabels the Dome of the Rock as the Temple of Solomon, but depicts the building with a fine onion dome – a pure orientalist fantasy from the mind of a Dutch woodcut artist named Erhard Reeuwich. The book containing the map became a bestseller, reprinted 13 times and translated into multiple languages, influencing the spread of onion-domed churches across Europe in the 16th century. It is a tale of mistaken identity and unintended consequence worthy of a Monty Python sketch.

1486年,德国美因茨市出版的第一张印刷版耶路撒冷地图进一步混淆了视听。书中不仅将岩石圆顶清真寺标注成所罗门神庙,还用了精美的洋葱形顶来描绘这座建筑——活脱脱是荷兰木刻艺术家艾哈德·雷威奇心中对于东方的纯粹幻想。这本地图册广为畅销,先后再版了13次,并被翻译成多种语言,促进了16世纪欧洲洋葱顶教堂的盛行。张冠李戴酿成始料未及的后果,这个闹剧值得巨蟒剧团拍成小品了。 


The transfer of Islamic motifs to the west wasn’t always so simple, though. The pointed arch took a more circuitous route. Darke traces how the arches first spread to Cairo, becoming sharper and more pointed under the Abbasid empire, and were in turn admired by visiting merchants from the wealthy Italian port of Amalfi, who channelled discoveries from their travels into their eclectic 10th-century basilica. This exotic building caught the eye of Abbot Desiderius, who visited Amalfi in 1065 on a shopping trip for rare luxury merchandise, and decided to take the pointed window design for his monastery at Monte Cassino.

然而,伊斯兰装饰传播到西方并不总是一帆风顺。尖拱的传播就比较迂回。根据达克的追溯,尖拱首先传到了开罗,并在阿拔斯帝国统治时期变得越来越尖,随后又吸引了意大利富饶的阿马尔菲港口的商人。他们将旅行中的发现引入了10世纪推崇兼收并蓄的大教堂。这座充满异域情调的建筑吸引了时任修道院院长的维克多三世教宗的目光。他在1065年采购稀世珍宝的途中访问了阿玛尔菲,并决定要在当时任职的卡西诺山修道院采用尖窗设计。

eclectic 折衷主义的/兼收并蓄的
指不同历史风格元素(主要是建筑、美术和装饰艺术)的结合。有时也适用于新古典主义后19世纪建筑的风格多样性。意义相当模糊,认为每件艺术品都代表着各种影响的结合,从未构成一种运动或构成一种特定风格:这也正是其独特之处。
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eclecticism#Architecture_and_art


More Arab than European … Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock, left, and St Mark’s basilica in Venice.

更像是阿拉伯式而非欧式建筑… 左侧是耶路撒冷的岩石圆顶清真寺;右侧是威尼斯的圣马克大教堂。


Those windows were then copied for the Benedictine abbey at Cluny in France, the largest church in the world at the time. Abbot Suger, an adviser to kings Louis VI and VII, liked how the windows let in more light, and immediately applied the same design to his Saint-Denis basilica in Paris. Regarded as the earliest fully gothic structure, the basilica was completed in 1144 and its architect went on to work at Notre-Dame. “They all just copied it,” says Darke. “These were the most powerful churches in Europe, so the style completely took off, as all fashions do. When powerful people adopt something, everyone wants one.”

之后,这些窗户式样又被照搬到了法国当时最大的教堂——克鲁尼市的本笃会修道院。此时的修道院长苏格是路易六世和七世国王的顾问,他喜欢让更多的光线投射过窗户,并立即将相同的设计应用于他在巴黎的圣但尼大教堂。这座教堂被认为是最早的哥特式建筑。1144年圣但尼大教堂竣工,其建筑师转而修建巴黎圣母院。“都是复制品,”达克说,“这些教堂在欧洲最有权势,因此对这种风格趋之若鹜。有权势的人用什么,谁都想效仿。” 


The list goes on. There are the early square minarets, found on such buildings as the Great Mosque of Damascus, that taper thinner and are crowned with a bulbous finial dome. These inspired such great Italian towers as those of Florence’s town hall and St Mark’s Campanile in Venice, prefiguring centuries of church bell-towers.

照搬东方风格的西方建筑还不止这些。大马士革大清真寺等建筑中有些早期的方形宣礼塔,塔身逐渐收紧变细,在顶端冠有球根状圆顶。籍此,佛罗伦萨市政厅和威尼斯圣马可钟楼等大名鼎鼎的意大利塔楼应运而生,这类风格也一统此后数世纪教堂钟楼的风格。 


Drawing on architectural historian Deborah Howard’s research, Darke shows Venice to be more Arab than European, from its narrow winding passageways and courtyard homes with rooftop terraces, to the Islamic ornamentation of the Doge’s Palace (modelled on Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem) and the onion domes of St Mark’s. All are the fruit of trips made by Venetian merchants to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Persia, fostering a level of influence that extended even to fashion: women in Venice were veiled in public and dressed in black from head to toe. “One cannot see their faces for all the world,” a 15th-century source commented. “They go about so completely covered up, that I do not know how they can see to go along the street.”

达克借鉴了建筑历史学家德博拉·霍华德的研究结果,在书中论证了威尼斯的建筑风格其实更偏阿拉伯式而非欧式。从狭窄的蜿蜒小道和带屋顶露台的庭院住宅,到总督宫的伊斯兰装饰(模仿耶路撒冷的阿克萨清真寺),以及圣马克的洋葱形圆顶,都是威尼斯商人前往埃及、叙利亚、巴勒斯坦和波斯的商旅收获。这些建筑风格影响广泛,风靡一时:威尼斯的女性在公共场合蒙着面纱,一袭黑衣。15世纪有消息评论称:“没人能看清她们到底长什么样。这些女人全身严丝合缝,我都不知道她们怎么看路的。” 


The book comes at a charged time, when supposedly western architecture is being mobilised by right-wing nationalist groups to bolster their idealised vision of a “pure” European identity. There are now countless social media accounts promoting messages of white supremacy disguised as heritage appreciation, while recent government edicts about tradition and beauty carry similar overtones. Darke’s work takes an eloquent sledgehammer to such ignorant, dog-whistle propaganda, revealing how the monuments idealised by the alt-right have their roots in the very culture of which they are so suspicious.

《掠自东方》在东西方正值剑拔弩张之时出版:当下右翼民族主义者不断援引所谓的西方建筑,以强化他们对“纯粹”欧洲身份的理想视野;无数社交媒体帐户披着文物鉴赏的外衣,宣扬白人至上主义信息;而最近政府关于保护传统之美的法令也裹挟着类似的弦外之音。达克的作品以雄辩的笔触猛烈抨击了这种愚昧无知的狗哨政治渗透,揭露了被非主流右翼理想化的历史遗迹如何植根于他们一再质疑的伊斯兰文化之中。 

dog whistle   嘘狗/狗哨
Noun. (Politics). a political strategy, statement, slogan, etc., that conveys a controversial, secondary message understood only by those who support the message: 一种政治策略、声明、口号等,传达一个有争议的次要信息,只有那些支持该信息的人才能理解:
His criticism of welfare was a dog whistle appealing to racist voters.
例句:他对福利事业的批评是狗哨政治,旨在吸引有种族歧视的选民。
源自https://www.dictionary.com/browse/dog-whistle


Borrowed time … from left, the now destroyed minaret of the Great Mosque in Aleppo, Syria; and Big Ben in London.

文化照搬时期… 左侧是叙利亚阿勒颇的大清真寺,如今尖塔被摧毁;右侧是伦敦的大本钟。


The ignorance is widespread, and perhaps the most surprising thing in Stealing from the Saracens is how much of this should not come as a surprise to the modern reader. After all, throughout the book, Darke summons the words of Christopher Wren, who was well aware of the Middle Eastern origins of gothic architecture, and of the structural techniques he was using for St Paul’s Cathedral.

无知无孔不入。也许《掠自东方》中最令人惊讶的是,对于现代读者来说,反而是其中有多少意外本应不足为奇。毕竟,达克在书中频繁引用了克里斯托弗·雷恩的话。而后者深知,哥特式建筑和他应用于圣保罗大教堂的结构技术都起源于中东。 


“Modern gothic,” he wrote in the 1700s, “is distinguished by the lightness of its work, by the excessive boldness of its elevations … by the delicacy, profusion and extravagant fancy of its ornaments … Such productions, so airy, cannot admit the heavy Goths for their author.” Instead, he concluded, “from all the marks of the new architecture, it can only be attributed to the Moors; or what is the same thing, to the Arabians or Saracens”.

在18世纪初期,他写道:“现代哥特风以其作品的轻盈、夸张的高耸……及其装饰的精致、繁复和奢靡著称… 此类作品如此飘逸,笨拙的哥特人不可能是他们的作者。”相反,他总结说:“种种迹象表明,这些新式架构只能是摩尔人,即阿拉伯人或撒拉逊人的创举”。 


The irony is in the name itself: in Wren’s day, Saracen was a pejorative term for the Arab Muslims, against whom the Crusaders had fought their “holy war”. It originated from the Arabic word “saraqa”, meaning “to steal”, as Saracens were seen as looters and thieves. Never mind the fact that the Crusaders plundered their way across Europe, Jerusalem and Constantinople – pilfering the wonders of Islamic architecture as they went, and airbrushing the origins of their booty in the process.

“撒拉逊”本身亦颇具讽刺意味:在雷恩生活的时代,撒拉逊(Saracen)是对曾与十字军在“圣战”中抗争的阿拉伯穆斯林的贬称。这个单词起源于阿拉伯语“ saraqa”,意为“偷”,因为撒拉逊人被视为掠夺者和小偷。这一称呼罔顾的事实是:十字军烧杀抢掠的足迹曾经遍布欧洲、耶路撒冷和君士坦丁堡,他们将伊斯兰的建筑奇观窃入囊中,并通过不断粉饰,将战利品的起源湮没在历史长河中。 


• Stealing from the Saracens: How Islamic Architecture Shaped Europe by Diana Darke is published by Hurst on 20 August.

• 8月20日,《赫斯特评论》出版了戴安娜·达克的《掠自东方:伊斯兰建筑如何塑造欧洲》。




参考阅读:

文艺复兴之中的东西博弈——社会人类学家古迪不断批判欧洲历史学家将自己的历史谱系学强加给其他文明。这个模式中的历史阶段划分、文明发展过程以及评价文明形态高下的标准都是完全西方化的,将之投射到其他文明当中,则不免方枘圆凿,还带着一丝诡谲的傲慢。

http://art.ifeng.com/2018/0813/3436491.shtml





  • 本文原载于 The Guardian

  • 原文链接:thttps://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/aug/13/looted-landmarks-notre-dame-big-ben-st-marks-east-stealing-from-the-saracens


一、了解取经号 | 我们是谁,在做什么,如何加入
二、学习贴士 | 如何打印输出PDF如何使用微信读书订阅取经号
三、翻译服务 | 咨询邮箱:[email protected]
四、社交媒体 | 微信公众号:取经号;微博:取经号JTW
五、译文归档 | 访问网站:qujinghao.com
六、学习社群 | 翻译社(暂停中)

添加伍豪微信,防止走丢



Comments are closed.