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你会讲“新冠话”吗?



我们翻译这篇文章的理由


新冠疫情如乌云一般笼罩每个人的情绪,社交隔离更是让人们深感生活不便与情绪低落的郁闷心情。但是,苦中作乐一直是人类文明得以生生不息的精神源泉,而语言更是在这一过程中发挥着不可磨灭的作用。十个由疫情而生的“新冠词”漂洋过海,在调侃的语气中蕴藏着慰藉的力量,传递着人类再一次共克时艰的信心与勇气🍀。

——禹琦



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你会讲“新冠话”吗?新冠俚语指南

插图: RICHARD PHIPPS

译者:禹琦

校对:阿索 & 小康

策划:璐雪 & 禹琦

Do you speak corona? A guide to covid-19 slang 

你会讲“新冠话”吗?新冠俚语指南


Around the world, coronavirus is changing how we speak. Don’t be a “covidiot” – make sure your pandemic parlance is up to scratch.

新冠病毒正在全球范围内影响着我们的语言习惯。快学起来,确保你的术语库达标,可别在疫情期间成了“新冠憨憨”。


Hamsteren  仓鼠囤
1. To stuff one’s cheeks (verb)  (食物)塞满双颊
2. Hoarding  囤货达人
Panic buying for beginners
初级选手,惊慌失措仓鼠囤
Sign-language interpreters rarely get noticed, let alone upstage the person they’re signing for. But during the early stages of the coronavirus epidemic in Europe, a Dutch signer went viral when she translated a government minister’s warning not to hoard food with a pinched nose and rodent-like clawing with her hands. She was signing the word “hamsteren”, which means stuffing food into your cheeks like a hamster, or, as it’s more commonly used, to hoard.
手语翻译很少引起注意,更不用说抢别人的风头了。但是新冠病毒在欧洲流行的早期,一位荷兰手语译员意外走红。当时她皱起鼻子,模仿着啮齿类动物拨弄食物的动作,生动表现了大臣警告民众“请勿囤积食物”。其实她是在翻译“hamsteren”(仓鼠式囤积)一词,该词形容像仓鼠一样将食物塞满两颊,通俗一点说,就是囤积食物。

The Netherlands prides itself on frugality and household thrift. So until recently the verb mostly had jolly connotations: annual supermarket promotional events (“de hamsterweken”) rewarded star hamsters who were stocking up on supplies. Germans use a similar word, “Hamsterkauf”. Whereas the English word “hoarding” refers to something secretive, which happens when nobody is watching, “hamsteren” is clearly visible and speaks to the much-celebrated Dutch openness.
荷兰人一向以朴素与勤俭持家为荣。因此,一直以来“hamsteren”一词都隐含欢乐之义:每年的仓鼠(促销)周(“ de hamsterweken”)奖励积极囤货的“明星仓鼠”。德语中也有类似的单词“ Hamsterkauf”。然而,英文单词“ hoarding”是指四下无人的私密行动,而荷兰语中的“hamstereren”则光明正大,毫无遮掩之意,充分彰显荷兰人的开放性。

Openness has turned to shame as the outbreak advanced. In the Netherlands, as elsewhere, people have “hamstered” in supermarkets as they worried about disruptions to supply chains and being isolated indoors. “Hamsteren is not nice,” Mark Rutte, the Dutch prime minister, said in a press conference; later he called it “retarded”. Shops are calling on people to stop the practice too, and social-media memes ridicule the hoarders. Albert Heijn, a supermarket chain that organises annual hamster weeks, called off the yearly promotion that was supposed to start in April. The Dutch had already filled their cheeks.
随着疫情不断蔓延,坦诚与羞耻渐渐划上了等号。与世界各地人民一样,荷兰人既担心超市物资供应中断,又害怕被迫室内隔离,所以在超市中惊慌失措地抢购。荷兰总理马克·鲁特(Mark Rutte)在新闻发布会上劝诫人们“请勿囤货”,后又直呼其为“弱智行为”。商店也呼吁人们停止囤货,社交媒体上满是嘲讽这些“仓鼠”的表情包,举办年度仓鼠周活动的连锁超市阿尔伯特·海因(Albert Heijn)也取消了原定于4月开始的年度促销活动。荷兰人已经把嘴巴塞得满满当当。
提供者:萨查·瑙塔(Sacha Nauta)

Geisterspiel  幽灵赛
1. ghost game (noun)  幽灵赛(名词)
A football match needs more than 22 players
足球赛不能只有22名球员
March 11th was an odd milestone for German football: it was the first ever Geisterspiel, or ghost game in the Bundesliga, German football’s top-flight division. As coronavirus was spreading across the country, the city of Mönchengladbach in west Germany decreed that the match against FC Cologne, a Rhineland derby, would now take place without fans. Inside the deserted 54,000-seater stadium the announcer rattled through his usual script: team line-ups, league standings, and then, finally, spectator numbers: “Today, there are none.” The hosts won 2-1, but the victory felt hollow. “It is sport without a heart,” wrote Die Zeit, a weekly.
对于德国足球来说,3月11日是个不同寻常的日子:这一天,德国足球顶级联赛德甲进行了有史以来第一场“幽灵赛”。随着新冠病毒在全国范围内的传播,德国西部的门兴格拉德巴赫市(Mönchengladbach)颁布法令,要求该市与同属于莱茵区的科隆比赛时,现场不能有观众。容纳5.4万个座位的体育场偌大无比,却无人落座。播音员念着例行的台词:球队阵容、联赛排名、最后是观众人数:“今天的现场没有一个观众。”东道主以2比1的比分获胜,但这胜利了无意义。德国《时代周报》写道:“这是一场没有灵魂的比赛。”

Geisterspiele have a long history in football. The word once referred to games so obscured by winter fog that players were reduced to spectres and the ball had to be imagined. The modern usage arose in the 1980s, when footballing authorities banned supporters of lower-league teams from attending specific matches as a punishment for hooliganism. This year, fans barely had time to get used to the coronavirus-induced Geisterspiele before the German football season, like most in Europe, was suddenly suspended.
Geisterspiele在足球领域拥有悠久的历史。其一度用于指代在冬雾笼罩的比赛中,人们只能看到“幽灵”一般的球员,凭空想象球的样子。该词的现代用法始于20世纪80年代,足球赛事部门禁止低层联盟球队的球迷参加特定的比赛,作为对足球流氓行为的惩罚。而今年,由于受到新冠病毒的影响,德国球迷们还没来得及接受“幽灵赛”的形式,德国就同欧洲其他许多国家一样突然叫停了足球赛季。

With no end in sight to Germany’s restrictions on mass gatherings Christian Seifert, head of the German Football League, says that Geisterspiele might be the only way to conclude the season. Much is at stake: Germany’s is the world’s third most valuable league, and some teams fear that they will go bankrupt if the season is voided. Yet Geisterspiele bring their own problems; during their team’s game against Cologne, hundreds of Mönchengladbach fans defied the club’s appeals and assembled outside, hoping that their cheers would penetrate the empty stadium. In a novel turn of events, the ghost game was haunted by humans.
德国足球联赛主席克里斯蒂安·塞弗特(Christian Seifert)称,德国对大规模集会的限制令的解禁还遥遥无期,“幽灵赛”很可能是延续本赛季的唯一途径。德国的足球联赛是世界上第三大最有价值的联赛,而如果赛季取消,一些球队可能面临破产,德国足球危机四伏。然而,幽灵比赛自身也暗藏风险——在与科隆队的比赛中,成百上千的门兴格拉德巴赫球迷无视俱乐部的呼吁,聚集在场外,希望他们的欢呼声能响彻空荡荡的体育场。将球赛变成“幽灵赛”的最新反转中,闹事的不是鬼,反倒是人类。
提供者:汤姆·努塔尔(Tom Nuttall)


Covidiot  新冠憨憨
1. Someone who ignores public health advice (noun)  忽视公共卫生建议的人(名词)
Where there are rules, there are those who break them
哪里有规则,哪里就有违反规则的人
Even in a pandemic, many of us are prone to judge others and find them wanting: the term “covidiot” describes any and every person behaving stupidly or irresponsibly as the epidemic spreads.  Sometime in early March the word was born, and, almost as fast as the virus spread, so did instances of covidiotic behaviour.
即使在传染病的大流行中,很多人也喜欢评判他人,挑剔他人的不足:“新冠憨憨”一词是指即使病毒不断传播,却依然做出愚蠢或不负责任的行为的人。三月初,这个词应劫而生,和病毒一样迅速传播开来,新冠憨憨们的诡异行为也是如此。

The panic-buyers who left supermarket shelves bare of toilet paper and pasta were among the first to earn the title covidiot in Britain, America and elsewhere. Soon, as government lockdowns were put in place, they were followed by those who ignored public health warnings to stay home. These new covidiots held barbecues on beaches, sunbathed in parks and, in one particularly extreme instance, a covidiot wiped his own saliva on goods at a British supermarket. In Florida bull-headed youths on spring break flooded bars and beaches; one shirtless partygoer told news reporters, “If I get corona, I get corona. At the end of the day, I’m not going to let it stop me from partying.” The label has also been used to describe those expounding conspiracy theories about the origins of covid-19, and others warning not to get any eventual coronavirus vaccine as being “from the pit of hell”.
在英美等国,那些扫清空超市货架上的卫生纸和意面的恐慌人群最先夺得雅号。不久,随着政府实施封锁,另一批憨憨接踵而至。他们不愿呆在家中,无视公共卫生警告,跑到海滩上烧烤、溜到公园里晒日光浴;更有甚者,英国有人把超市货架上的商品舔了个遍。适逢春假,莽撞的愣头青挤满了佛罗里达的酒吧和海滩。一位赤裸上身的派对老炮告诉新闻记者:“我要是感染就感染了呗。不管咋说,我不会因为这个就不嗨了。”这个花名还被用来描述那些散布新冠病毒起源的阴谋论者,以及那些称新冠疫苗为“来自地狱深渊”的邪物、警告人们不要接种任何有效疫苗的人。


At least the term is a democratic one. The label has been applied from the highest office to the lowest. Like the virus itself, no one is immune.
不过,这一花名至少很民主,上至高级官员,下至黎民百姓,都不乏新冠憨憨;就像病毒本身一样,没有人可以免疫。
提供者:阿里亚·肖阿布(Alia Shoaib)

你别来我无恙  (nǐbiélái wǒwúyàng)
1. If you don’t come, I won’t come to any harm  你别来,我无恙。
Catching an old Chinese expression
活捉一只古老的中文俗语!
People in China often use an old pleasantry, 别来无恙 (biéláiwúyàng), to greet each other after a long time apart. The literal translation is “I hope nothing bad has happened since we last said farewell”. In common parlance the phrase essentially means, “I hope you’ve been well”. It’s respectful, but conveys warmth and care too.
在中国,人们久别重逢后常常会说一句古老的客气话来问候彼此——“别来无恙”,字面意思是“希望自上次告别以来,你一切安好”。通俗来说,这个词主要是指“愿您一切都好”,既表示了尊敬,也传达了温暖与关怀。

But the term’s ancient origins have new bearing in the time of covid-19. According to “I Ching”, the “Book of Changes”, a book on divination and wisdom from the ninth century BC, the final character of the expression, 恙 (yàng), originally referred to a highly contagious bug that caused acute fever and a rash. In its early usage, then, people used this phrase to ask someone if they have become infected since they’d last met – the expression was uttered partly to wish someone well, partly as a warning to stay away if they were contagious.
但是“别来无恙”一词在新冠时代有了新的意义。根据《易经》(Book of Changes, 公元前9世纪一本充满预言和智慧的书),该词中最后一个字“恙”(yàng)最初是指一种会引发急性发烧和皮疹的高传染性流感。因此在早期,人们用这个词来问对方自上次分别以来是否健康——既是祝愿对方身体健康,又是在提醒他们,如果感染了疾病,请保持彼此的距离。

This meaning had long passed out of the popular consciousness, but as the outbreak of coronavirus spread, the original use made an unexpected comeback. A new phrase, 你别来我无恙 (nǐbiélái wǒwúyàng) means “if you don’t come, I won’t come to any harm”. This reconfiguring of the old idiom was bandied around as the epidemic moved across China, a means to promote social distancing between friends and family. It was a playful nod to history, with a serious message: if you wish me well, stay away.
其实这一层含义早已过时,但是随着新冠病毒的爆发,这层复古含义竟然重新流行,并引申出新的说法“你别来我无恙”(nǐbiéláiwǒwúyàng),意思是“只要您不过来,我就不会倒霉”。随着新冠肺炎席卷中国大地,人们对旧习语的重新阐述也成为了鼓励亲朋好友之间保持社交距离的一种方式。这是对历史的一种戏谑式致敬,也传达了一个严肃的信息:如果您希望我一切都好,那拜托就离我远点儿。
提供者:弗兰基·黄(Frankie Huang)

Quatorzaine  十四天的浪漫隔离
1. 14-day isolation period (noun)  十四天隔离期(名词)
The French almost make isolation sound romantic
法语让隔离都变得浪漫起来
The French language helped to give the English-speaking world the term “quarantine”, which derives from quarantaine, meaning a period of 40 days. There are references to its use in French, presumed to be of biblical origin, as early as the 12th century. It was during the plague in the 14th century that Italy used the word quarantena to refer specifically to isolation for reasons of disease. Venetians employed the term to describe the period of time a ship had to wait in port as a sanitary precaution before its crew could disembark. In short, the English language borrowed the word from French and the definition from Italian.
法语给英语世界带来了“隔离”一词,该词源于法语词quarantaine,意思是40天。据推测,其渊源可追溯至12世纪的《圣经》。在14世纪的黑死病流行期间,意大利人用quarantena一词专指针对疾病进行的隔离。威尼斯人用它来描述船舶在港口等待一段时间,让船员下船前采取卫生预防措施的情况。简而言之,英语的“隔离”分别从法语和意大利语借来了词形和词义。

Now the French have dug up another word, quatorzaine, to refer to the 14-day self-isolation period recommended during the covid-19 crisis. “How many pupils are en quatorzaine?” a French radio host asked the education minister, Jean-Michel Blanquer, shortly before he closed down schools in March. “Two doctors en quatorzaine” runs a typical newspaper headline.
现在法国人挖出另一个词quatorzaine(十四天)来指代新冠危机期间建议的14天自我隔离期。三月法国刚刚关闭学校前不久,一位法国广播电台主持询问教育部长让·米歇尔·布兰奎尔(Jean-Michel Blanquer)“有多少学生在隔离 (en quatorzaine)?”;报纸标题上也出现了“有两个医生在隔离(en quatorzaine)”的用法。

The French language lends itself to such linguistic formations: a dizaine, derived from the number dix, means ten of something; a douzaine, derived from douze, means 12. So talking about somebody being en quatorzaine rolls easily off the French tongue. Its anglicised version, on the other hand, would involve referring to somebody being “in quatorzine”. That may appeal for reasons of brevity, but, with time less at a premium these days, it seems unlikely to replace the more long-winded English phrase “in 14-day isolation”.
法语本身就有这一语言结构,便于脱离后被更多语言借用:从数字10 (dix) 衍生而来的dizaine(表示十);从doze衍生而来的douzaine意思是12,所以法国人娴熟地用“en quatorzaine ”表达隔离(共十四天)。此外,其英语版本指某人“在隔离中”(in quatorzine)。虽然其在表达上比冗长的“ 14天的隔离”更加简洁明了,但由于隔离期人们的时间更充裕了,后者似乎没那么容易被取代。
提供者:索菲·皮德(Sophie Pedder)

Untore  油膏佬
1. Plague spreader (noun)  疫情传播者(名词)
What Italians have learned from plague-themed literary classics
意大利人从瘟疫主题的文学经典中所学到的
As the world adjusts to life under quarantine, many have sought refuge in the pages of plague-themed literature. Sales of Albert Camus’ “The Plague”, about a disease-infested Algerian town in the 1940s, have soared; one publisher has struggled to keep up with orders.  
世界各地人们都在适应隔离生活,其中很多人在瘟疫主题的文学作品中寻求到了慰藉。加缪(Albert Camus)的《鼠疫》(The Plague)描述了20世纪40年代,阿尔及利亚小镇遭遇鼠疫侵袭的故事。疫情期间,这本书销量激增,几乎供不应求。

Italians have also re-embraced two national literary classics. Alessandro Manzoni’s “The Betrothed”, a classroom staple published in 1827, is set partly in Milan during the plague of 1630. In it, outsiders suspected of deliberately spreading the disease are labelled untori. The allegation was previously directed at Jews accused of propagating the plague in 1348. With the current coronavirus onslaught the word has crept back into use.
而意大利人还重温了两部民族经典。其一是亚历山德罗·曼佐尼(Alessandro Manzoni)的《约婚夫妇》。作为教材必修内容,该书于1827年出版,讲述了1630年发生于米兰的一场瘟疫。书中,米兰人将有故意传播疾病嫌疑的外来人称为untori。而1348年的那场瘟疫爆发时,背负这一散布病毒的罪名的是犹太人。随着目前新冠疫情愈演愈烈,这个词语重新回到了大众视野。
译注:The Betrothed:《约婚夫妇》是曼佐尼的长篇历史小说,是意大利古典文学的瑰宝。在意大利,这部文学名著如同但丁《神曲》一样,家喻户晓,妇孺皆知,人民大众极为珍视和喜爱它。它以一对青年男女的悲欢离合和婚姻波折为主线,描绘出十七世纪意大利各阶层的人物及其风云变幻的社会现实。被誉为反映当时社会现实的一部百科全书。
The noun untore comes from the verb ungere, meaning “to grease”; unto means “oily”.  In “The Betrothed” the untori supposedly sought to infect as many people as possible with their unguento, “ointment”. The word has now resurfaced in reference to Chinese people accused of bringing covid-19 to Italy, and to lambast the way that many Italians were treated by countries with fewer cases. When China sent medical equipment one headline ran “From untore to samaritan”. The usage develops as the outbreak spread. The latest untori are the runners who pound the pavement despite the lockdown , and three Red Cross medics who returned from Lombardy, Italy’s worst-hit region, to Puglia in the south only to be harassed by neighbours. 
Untore一词来自动词ungere,意为“涂油脂于”,其中unto表示“油状的”。《约婚夫妇》中的untori(spreader)意图用unguento(油膏)感染尽可能多的人。现在这个词再次浮出水面,用于被指控将新冠病毒带到意大利的中国人,并且斥责那些疫情较轻的国家对待意大利人的劣行。中国运送医疗设备到意大利时,一个新闻标题称中国人“从传播疫情的‘油膏佬’传播者到乐善好施的撒马利亚人”。随着疫情的演进,这个用法也越传越广。最新的“油膏佬”是隔离期仍在街上跑步的人,此外还有三名红十字会医务人员,他们从意大利疫情最严重的伦巴第大区返回南部的普利亚大区时,竟然遭到了邻居的攻击。
译注:“仁慈的撒马利亚人”(英语:Parable of the Good Samaritan)是基督教文化中一个很著名的成语和口头语,意为:好心人、见义勇为者。源于《路加福音》第10章第25-37节中耶稣讲的寓言:一个犹太人被强盗打劫,重伤躺在路边。有祭司和利未人路过但不闻不问。惟有一个撒马利亚人路过,不顾隔阂,动了慈心照应他,在离开时自己出钱把犹太人送进了旅店。该寓言对西方法律制度的影响是,许多国家制定了“好撒马利亚人法”,用立法手段保护做好事的人。例如在美国和加拿大,急救人士在抢救伤者过程中或其后对方死亡,可以运用此法案撤销死者家属对治疗者的法律起诉,从而鼓励旁观者对伤、病人士施以帮助。

If Manzoni offers insight into the human instinct to find scapegoats, an earlier classic has some practical advice. In Giovanni Boccaccio’s “Decameron”, ten people isolate themselves in a villa outside Florence during the plague of 1348 and recount stories, some sexually explicit, to pass the time. Fiction continues to offer both inspiration and solace.
如果说曼佐尼洞悉了人类寻找替罪羊这一本能,那么意大利另一部早期经典则提供一些实用建议。乔瓦尼·薄伽丘(Giovanni Boccaccio)的《十日谈》(Decameron)讲述了在1348年的瘟疫中,十个人躲在佛罗伦萨郊外的一栋别墅中与世隔绝,靠讲故事(有些还挺露骨的)来消磨时间。如今这部小说也为当下困于疫情的人们带来了不少灵感和慰藉。

提供者:亚历山德拉·法塔尔(Alexandra Fattal )

Coronaspeck  新冠肥
1. Coronavirus fat (noun)  新冠病毒期间的肥胖(名词)
Some Germans are feeding their fear
德国人的恐惧越喂越肥
German workers ordered to stay at home to help the government flatten one sort of curve have found themselves battling the emergence of another, just above the belt. Home workouts sound great, but the days are long and dull and your latest bout of Hamsterkäufe (panic-buying; lit. “hamster-purchase”) has left the fridge gloriously well-stocked. There’s always another variety of Ritter Sport to try, oder? Anyway, what’s a few kilos between socially distanced friends?
德国职员们现在纷纷隔离于家里,响应政府“拉平疫情曲线”的号召,但随即发现自己又陷入了另一场斗争——肚腩大作战。室内健身听起来不错,但是日子漫长又乏味,而你刚刚完成了一次大抢购(Hamsterkäufe, 即“仓鼠式囤货”),冰箱塞得鼓鼓囊囊,熠熠生辉。不过总是有另一种“运动”—— Ritter Sport(瑞特斯波德,德国知名巧克力品牌)可以尝试,不是嘛?不管怎么说,朋友之间相隔好几公里,多几公斤又何妨?

Coronaspeck is the helpful German word for the fat deposited by weeks of stay-at-home grazing. Shoppers in Germany may know Speck as a bacon-like foodstuff, perhaps found on a crisp Flammkuchen or inside hearty Swabian Maultaschen. But its broader meaning corresponds to something like the English “flab”. Babyspeck, for example, is the puppy fat that lingers into adolescence; Winterspeck a memento of excessive indulgence in cold months. Best known is Kummerspeck, or “sorrow-fat”: think a tear-streaked Bridget Jones devouring tubs of ice-cream in the throes of a break-up.
新冠肥(德语:Coronaspeck)形象地表现了在家中自我圈养数周后囤积的脂肪。Speck 在德语中表示培根,是烹制松脆的Flammkuchen(烧糕,以熏肉和洋葱制成)或是鲜美多汁的斯瓦比亚Maultaschen(方形水饺,由肉和菠菜为馅)常用的食材。而其更广泛的含义对应于英语中的“ flab”(松弛的赘肉)。例如,Babyspeck是指青春期的婴儿肥, Winterspeck则是在寒冷季节过度放纵食欲的纪念品。更为人熟知的是Kummerspeck,或称“悲伤的脂肪”又叫“伤心肥”,只消想想布里奇特·琼斯(Bridget Jones,著名爱情喜剧系列电影《BJ单身日记》中的大龄单身女主角)在失恋后哭得稀里哗啦,将几桶冰淇淋往嘴里塞的景象。

How can Coronaspeck be combatted? Happily, Germany’s lockdown is a notch more tolerant than those of some neighbours. There is no limit on the number of excursions for exercise or other essential purposes. And if the neologism identifies one of the downsides of the corona-crisis, an older noun may inspire some to meet the challenge. Sitzfleisch (lit. “sitting-meat”) can mean one’s bottom, but it is also the ability, much-prized in Germany, to endure or stick something out. The country’s restrictions will not expire until April 19th at the earliest. What better test of a nation’s ability to resist the temptations of the pantry? 
如何对抗新冠肥?好在德国的封锁比一些邻国要宽松——户外运动或是出门操办重要事情均不受限制。此外,如果说新冠肥这一新词是在反映出一些新冠危机的负面影响,那么一个旧词可能会重新激起人们的斗志。Sitzfleisch(即“久坐积肉”)通常指一个人臀部多余的肉,但在德国,该词备受人们赞誉,被用于描述一个人的忍耐力。德国的隔离令最快要到4月19日才会解禁,还有什么比抵抗食物的诱惑更能考验一个民族的耐力呢?
提供者:汤姆·努塔尔(Tom Nuttall)

Miss Rona   新冠小姐
1. A new way to refer to covid-19 online (noun)  网上对新冠病毒的新称谓(名词)
Queer and black slang creates a coronavirus colloquialism
同性文化与黑人俚语为新冠病毒的口语化开辟新语境
The prickly sphere of the novel coronavirus has become a familiar sight. Now imagine the same sphere, but badly photoshopped with hoop earrings, Mrs Potatohead lips and fake nails. This is one artistic rendering of “Miss Rona”, a reference to covid-19 online that started, like many American speech fads, among queer and black users on Twitter.
新冠病毒满是尖状凸起的形象已经深入人心。现在发挥一下想象力,给病毒的尖刺球形随便P上两个大耳圈与薯头夫人的嘴唇和假指甲,“新冠小姐”闪亮登场。这是网民对新冠病毒的一种艺术化表达,而与许多美国风潮一样,这一用法也发源于推特上的非异性恋和黑人用户。

“Gay men always add ‘miss’ to popular things,” says Aaron Leigh, a black, gay podcaster based in Atlanta. “‘Miss Rona’ basically means it has a nasty attitude or it’s a sassy virus.” In black culture, too, adding “Miss” usually means you’re thought of as messy or problematic, says Jonathan Higgins, a queer, black writer. The personification captures the mundane ways in which the virus has disrupted our lives: cancelling our plans, testing our relationships, watching over us as we wash our hands until they’re scaly. 
现居亚特兰大的黑人同性恋播客亚伦·利(Aaron Leigh)说,“男同性恋一般会称流行事物为‘某某小姐’,所以‘新冠小姐’的说法也就是说这个病毒又讨厌又刁蛮。”而在黑人文化中,“某某小姐”通常暗指作风有问题,非异性恋黑人作家乔纳森·希金斯(Jonathan Higgins)如是说。拟人化的病毒道出了它是如何一步一步扰乱我们的正常生活的:许多计划被迫取消,人际关系面临检验,甚至在我们疯狂洗手、搓到脱皮时它还监视着我们。

Many American colloquialisms originate in queer or black slang, such as “slay,” “yasss,” and “work” or “fleek” and “bae”, though their origins are rarely acknowledged. This one is spreading even further: teens as far as South-East Asia now have “Miss Rona” as their display names on Twitter. As the pandemic rages, it’s not just the virus that’s spreading. 
像“slay”(秒杀全场)、“yasss”(耶耶耶)、“work”(活儿)、“fleek”(吊炸天)和“ bae”(男/女朋友)等等同性恋或黑人俚语的起源鲜有人知,但其仍是许多美国俗语的来源。现在这一趋势进一步增强:“新冠小姐”声名远播,远至东南亚,都有孩子在推特上将它作为用户名。显然,随着新冠病毒的蔓延,到处传播的并不只有病毒。
提供者:克里斯蒂卡·瓦拉古(Krithika Varagur)

Griķi  荞麦好慌
1. buckwheat (noun)  荞麦(名词)
2. panic food  恐慌期的食物
A Latvian staple becomes a symbol of mockery
拉脱维亚的一道主食在疫情期间成了笑柄
Few foods emulate what it means to be Latvian as well as buckwheat, a canteen staple from the Soviet era that has been grown in the Baltics for centuries. Often served with kotletes (pork cutlets) or karbonāde (pork schnitzel), the versatile grain featured in hundreds of national folk songs. But, amid the coronavirus crisis, buckwheat has become the subject of ridicule among many Latvians. 
在拉脱维亚人心中,很少有食物可以与荞麦的地位相媲美。荞麦在波罗的海地区已经有几个世纪的种植史,自苏联时期起成为公共食堂供应的主食,通常搭配猪肉片或者炸猪排一起吃。这种食物也在了无数拉脱维亚民歌中被传唱。然而,在这次新冠危机中,荞麦成了很多拉脱维亚人嘲笑的对象。

When Australia went under lockdown, locals hoarded so much toilet paper that the worst offenders were dubbed “magpies”. In Britain supermarket shelves were stripped of pasta. In Latvia it was buckwheat that the hoarders went for. A Latvian TV channel reported that shops in Riga were “cleaned out” of buckwheat; some supermarkets saw a 99% increase in sales of the grain in the last week of February, compared with the last week of January this year.
澳大利亚下令封城的时候,当地人囤了大量的厕纸,最疯狂的抢购者被戏谑为“收藏家”;英国人清空了超市的意大利面;而拉脱维亚的达人们却盯上了荞麦。据拉脱维亚一家电视台报道,首都里加的商店里,荞麦被“洗劫一空”,一些超市在2月最后一周的谷物销量,相比上个月同期暴涨了99%。

Buckwheat quickly became a symbol of mockery in national news headlines and on social media, as an embodiment of panic and fear over covid-19. Comparisons were made between buckwheat and garlic, which is widely used as a natural remedy to treat colds and coughs in Latvia. The phrase “griķi is the new ķiploki (garlic)” was soon coined by Latvian Twitter users, and one Latvian public official suggested that if Latvians lined the perimeter of their country with buckwheat they might even be able to ward off “the new virus”. Some Latvians seem to have enough of the stuff to do so.
荞麦迅速登上了拉脱维亚各大媒体头条和社交网站,成为媒体嘲讽的对象,体现着人们面对新冠病毒的恐慌情绪。荞麦开始被拿来和大蒜相提并论,因为大蒜对拉脱维亚人而言是治疗头疼脑热的万能药。“荞麦是新的大蒜(疗法)”这句话很快就在拉脱维亚网民中流传开来。某位官员甚至建议,如果在拉脱维亚的国界线撒上一圈荞麦,甚至就可以抵御病毒。看来拉脱维亚人果真能让荞麦派上大用场。
提供者:理查德·翁布拉斯科(Ričards Umbraško)

抄作业  (chāo zuò yè) 
1. To copy homework (verb)  照抄别人的作业(动词)
2. To steal China’s ingenuity without giving credit  抄袭中国的抗疫方式而毫无感激之意
Chinese social-media users think other countries are copying their homework
中国的社交媒体用户认为其他国家在抄他们的作业
It used to be that, if you searched 抄作业 “chao zuoye” on Chinese social media, you’d see tales of students plagiarising or cheating on tests: the term means to copy someone’s homework. Chao means to copy, and zuoye means school assignments. But zuoye can also refer to work in a more general sense, which has allowed the phrase to take on a new meaning amid the coronavirus pandemic.
过去,在中国社交媒体上搜索“抄作业”一词,你会看到的大多是学生抄袭或在考试中作弊的事例,这个词的本意是指抄袭别人的作业。“抄”的意思是复制、临摹,“作业”是学校布置的功课,但也可以泛指“工作”。在新冠病毒大流行的情况下,“作业”一词引申出新的含义。

As the virus has spread around the world, the lockdown is slowly being lifted in China and life in some parts of the country appears to be slowly returning to a (new) normal. Many are now watching to see how other countries fight covid-19. “Streets in Malaysia are really copying homework,” says a user on Weibo, a Twitter-like service, alongside a slideshow of public-service posters across Malaysia. The pictures show red banners with public-health slogans printed in white – a stylistic format that Chinese propagandists have used since long before the current pandemic. One Chinese blogger wrote that the National Basketball Association in America was copying the Chinese Basketball Association’s homework, after ESPN reported that the NBA was studying the CBA’s tactics for hosting games during China’s lockdown.
随着病毒在全世界范围内传播,中国却在慢慢解除封锁,部分地区的生活也逐渐恢复正常或进入(新)常态,许多人开始关注其他国家的抗疫实战。一位微博(类似推特的社交平台)用户上传了一组马来西亚公共服务海报的照片,并称:“马来西亚街上的这些操作就是在抄作业。”图片里是一条条红色的横幅,上面印着白色的公共卫生标语,和中国的宣传人员早在这次疫情扩散之前就开始使用的风格如出一辙。娱乐体育节目电视网报道称,美职篮借鉴中职篮在中国封锁期间举办比赛的策略,此后一篇来自中国的博客也称美职篮在“抄中职篮的作业”。

To say another country is copying homework is to be patriotic, but with snark. When another country copies China’s homework, users mean that it’s deploying tactics pioneered by China, without giving credit. This sentiment was particularly prevalent among Chinese Weibo users when Donald Trump labelled covid-19 the “Chinese virus,” drawing attention – and blame – to the global pandemic’s source. As the virus spreads in the West, many commenters on Weibo have called the health crisis facing America an “open-book exam”. As ever, China is keen to be top of the class. 
调侃其他国家“抄作业”的论调背后本该是一种爱国豪情,如今却颇具嘲讽意味。因为说另一个国家在抄袭中国的“作业”,也就是说中国是抗疫战术的先驱,而其他国家借鉴经验后却毫无感激之意。尤其是在特朗普宣称新冠病毒是“中国病毒”并将矛头对准中国之后,这种情绪在中国微博用户中尤为普遍。随着病毒在西方的肆虐,微博上越来越多评论调侃美国面临的公共卫生危机考验是一场“开卷考试”。中国一如既往,誓要做班里的优等生。
提供者:诺埃尔·马特(Noelle Mateer)

                                

  • 本文原载于1843magazine

  • 原文链接:

    https://www.1843magazine.com/upfront/brave-new-word/do-you-speak-corona-a-guide-to-covid19-slang


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