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天赋的诅咒


天赋的诅咒



我们翻译这篇文章的理由


天赋常被视为一种幸运,可昔日的天才少年跌落神坛的故事却是屡见不鲜。或许,幸运背后是否有着鲜为人知的不幸?对于天才的定义是否仍有拓展的空间?目前的教育体系是否有天才的容身之处?更多了解,方能产生更多理解。
——陈晓雪


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天赋的诅咒


作者:MAGGIE FERGUSSON 

译者:不锁

校对:陈晓雪

策划:邬璐雪 & 马佳宁


THE CURSE OF GENIUS

天赋的诅咒


We see exceptional intelligence as a blessing. So why, asks Maggie Fergusson,  are so many brilliant children miserable misfits?

我们将超常的智力视为上天的一种眷顾。可为什么这么多高智商的孩子都因不合群而痛苦不堪?麦琪·弗格森问道。


Tom remembers the day he decided he wanted to be a theoretical astrophysicist. He was deep into research about black holes, and had amassed a box of papers on his theories. In one he speculated about the relationship between black holes and white holes, hypothetical celestial objects that emit colossal amounts of energy. Black holes, he thought, must be linked across space-time with white holes. “I put them together and I thought, oh wow, that works! That’s when I knew I wanted to do this as a job.” Tom didn’t know enough maths to prove his theory, but he had time to learn. He was only five.

汤姆记得自己决心成为一名理论天体物理学家的那天。他沉迷于有关黑洞的研究,他自己写的理论文章已经可以装一箱子。其中有一篇是对黑洞和白洞关系的猜测,白洞是假设存在的释放着巨大能量的天体。他认为,黑洞一定穿越时空与白洞相连。“我把它们放在一起想,然后我发现,这样就能想通了!那时我就知道自己想从事这样的工作。”汤姆还没有足够的数学知识来证实他的理论,但他还有时间去学习。那时他只有五岁。


Tom is now 11. At home, his favourite way to relax is to devise maths exam papers complete with marking sheets. Last year for Christmas he asked his parents for the £125 registration fee to sit maths GCSE, an exam most children in Britain take at 16. He is currently working towards his maths A-level. Tom is an only child, and at first Chrissie, his mother, thought his love of numbers was normal. Gradually she realised it wasn’t. She would take him to lectures about dark matter at the Royal Observatory in London and notice that there were no other children there. His teacher reported that instead of playing outside with other kids at breaks, he wanted to stay indoors and do sums.

汤姆现在十一岁了。在家时,他最喜欢的放松方式就是设计数学试卷,并给出配套的评分标准。去年圣诞节,他向父母要了125英镑去报名GCSE的数学测试,而绝大多数英国孩子都是在16岁时才去报名参考。他最近正为了在这个考试里拿A而努力学习。汤姆是独生子,他的母亲克里西起初觉得他喜欢数字很正常。渐渐地她意识到并非如此。克里西曾带他去伦敦皇家天文台听关于暗物质的讲座,却发现观众席上全是大人,只有汤姆一个孩子。他的老师也告诉克里西,其他孩子课间都在外面玩,但汤姆却更愿意待在屋里做算术。

译注:GCSE:General Certificate of SecondaryEducation,中文译为普通中等教育证书,是英国学生完成第一阶段中等教育会考所颁发的证书,即英国普通初级中学毕业文凭,相当于中国国内的初中毕业考试文凭,但实际上,GCSE是英国中学10年级和11年级的学习课程。成绩等级从最高的A一直到G,还包括U与X,U就是ungraded。X为absent。


One day his parents took him to Milton Keynes to have his intelligence assessed by an organisation called Potential Plus, formerly the National Association for Gifted Children. “We told him it was a day of puzzles,” Chrissie says. “It was my dream world,” Tom says. “Half a day of tests!” His mother waited while he applied his mind to solving problems. When they were shown the results, Tom’s intelligence put him in the top 0.1% in Britain.

一天,汤姆的父母带他去到米尔顿凯恩斯,由一个叫做“潜在优势”(PotentialPlus)的机构对他做智商测试,这个机构前身是全国天才儿童协会。“我们告诉他这是充满谜题的一天,”克里西说道。“这就是我的梦想世界”,汤姆说道,“整整半天的测试!”汤姆开动脑筋答题,母亲就在一旁等他。测试结果显示,汤姆的智力水平高于英国99.9%的人,达到了全国顶尖水平。

译注:Milton Keynes(米尔顿凯恩斯)位于伦敦西北,是因为伦敦最早发生城镇郊区化而产生的所谓第三代卫星城,二战后才出现。


Precocious children are often dismissed as the product of pushy, middle-class parents. Nurture and environment clearly do play an important role in any child’s intellectual development. Talk to your child about politics over the dinner table and he is likely to develop confident opinions about the way the world should be run. Suggest that your toddler think of slices of cake in terms of angles and she may well display an early aptitude for mathematics. Practice can make perfect. The child with a gift for playing the piano who practises five hours a day is more likely to end up performing at Carnegie Hall than the equally gifted one who plays for just 20 minutes a week.

中产家庭压力教育下早熟的孩子通常不被纳入天才之列。教育和环境的确对所有孩子的智力发展都很重要。在餐桌上给你的孩子讲政治,他很可能对于世界应该如何运行形成自己的看法并对此十分笃定。想象一下,让一个刚会走的孩子从“角”的角度看待一块蛋糕,她很可能很早就会表现出对数学的兴趣。熟能生巧就是这个道理。即使两个孩子弹钢琴的天分一样,但最终每天练习五个小时的孩子比每周练习二十分钟的孩子更有可能在卡内基音乐厅演出。

天赋的诅咒

But children like Tom are different. He was brought up in an under privileged part of south London: 97% of pupils at his first school didn’t speak English as a first language. When it comes to numbers – or his other passions such as Latin and astrophysics – Tom’s parents have little idea what he’s talking about. His genius is not of their engineering.

但像汤姆这样的孩子却不一样。他在伦敦南部一个贫穷的地方长大,在他的小学里,97%的学生第一语言都不是英语。而谈到数字或者他的其他爱好比如拉丁语和天体物理学时,汤姆的父母很难理解汤姆在说什么。他的天赋并非父母的功劳。


Intelligence tests are marked “on a curve”, meaning that the results are transformed into a bell curve: what matters is how you do compared with others who take them. By definition, most scores bunch in the middle: the average result in a cohort becomes an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 100; the middle two-thirds of scores become IQs of 85 to 115. The outliers are few. About two people in 100 have IQs below 70, and another two have IQs above 130. By the time you get 45 points away from the average of 100 in either direction, you’re down to about one person in 1,000. But since only a small percentage of any population takes IQ tests, identifying very exceptional children is hard. Most schools have none.

智力测试结果被标记“在同一张图”中,最终形成一条钟型曲线:重要的是你的智力与其他受试者相比如何。按照定义,得分大多聚集在中间,所以平均智商显示为100,占三分之二的中段分数分布在85到115之间。离群值很少见。100人中大约有2个人智商低于70,还有两个智商高于130。智商高于或低于均值有45分的人在测试中只占千分之一。但由于只有少部分人参与智商测试,要识别天才儿童很困难。大多数学校一个都没有。


Society prizes intelligence. Geniuses are viewed with awe and assumed to be guaranteed prosperity and success. Yet there is a dark side to intelligence. Like many gifted children, Tom’s childhood has often been unhappy. Aged five, he talked about wanting to end his life: he said he planned to do this by banging his head repeatedly against a wall. “Life’s like a maze, only bigger,” Tom told his mum. “I feel I’m getting lost.” His GP said he was suffering from severe depression, and reckoned its roots lay in Tom’s “genius”, and the frustration and isolation this was causing him.

这个社会看重高智商。人们谈起天才总是不吝赞美,认为这些人必然得到财富和成功。然而,高智商也有不为人知的一面。和很多天才儿童一样,汤姆的童年时光常常是不快乐的。五岁时,他就想要结束自己生命,说他打算不断把头往墙上撞以达成这个目的。“生活就是一个迷宫,只不过大一些,”汤姆告诉他的母亲,“我觉得我迷路了。”全科医生说汤姆有严重的抑郁症,而且抑郁症的根源在于他的“天赋”,以及这种“天赋”带来的挫败感和孤独感。

 

Tom finds it hard to relate to other children and has few friends. At school he has been shunted out on his own into corridors and offices. “They didn’t want him in the class because he’s doing different stuff,” Chrissie says. To distract his mind from “dark thoughts”, Tom turns to puzzles and calculations, often late at night. He has long suffered from insomnia. The strain affects the whole family: “I don’t understand parents who seek this,” says Chrissie. “I can’t cope with it. I just want to take it away.”

汤姆很难和其他孩子玩到一起,所以没什么朋友。他在学校也被排斥,总是独自待在过道或者办公室里。克里西说,“其他孩子不希望他待在班上,因为他总是在做别的事”。为了不再纠结负面想法,汤姆经常在深夜解谜语、做算术。他长时间被失眠所折磨。汤姆紧绷的状态影响着全家,“我不能理解那些追求高智商的家长,”克里西说,“我不知道怎样和汤姆的天赋相处,我希望它消失。”


Many others echo the pain of Tom and his family. Mensa, an international organisation founded in Britain in 1946 to nurture the country’s most intelligent people, has 20,000 members (you must apply to join). When I put out a request via Mensa to hear from gifted children and their parents, my inbox fills with emails, many of them anguished. Those that I speak to say that, for fear of inspiring jealousy, they don’t dare talk to others about their children’s abilities. Given a sympathetic ear, they pour out their woes at such length that I nearly despair of getting them off the phone. Almost all are afraid of being identified, and insist on fake names.

还有很多人也遭受着与汤姆一家同样的痛苦。门萨成立于1946年,是一家旨在培养英国天才群体的国际组织,总部位于英国,现有20000个成员(必须申请才能加入)。我通过门萨向这些天才儿童及其父母发出了对话的请求,之后便在邮箱中收到了大量回复,他们中很多人都承受着痛苦。那些父母和我说,为了不招致嫉妒,他们不敢和外人谈起自己孩子的天赋。当我带着同情心地聆听,他们便立刻大吐苦水,滔滔不绝,以至于让我觉得等他们挂断电话是不可能的。几乎所有和我谈过话的父母都因害怕被认出来而坚持用化名。

 

Some countries value extremely high intelligence more than others and offer specific educational provision for such children. Yet even if your genius is prized, admired and cultivated, social and psychological issues that often accompany great ability may make it an unwelcome gift. From the inside – and for many families that I spoke to – genius can feel more like a curse than a blessing.

一些国家非常重视天才儿童,会给他们提供特殊教育。然而,即使你的天赋被珍视、欣赏,得到培养,社会和心理层面的负担也常随之而来,依然会让你不合群。天才们从内心深处感到——很多与我交谈过的天才父母也有此同感——天赋更像诅咒而非眷顾。


Most experts reserve the term “gifted” for children who demonstrate three characteristics. First, gifted children begin to master a particular discipline – a language, maths or chess – much younger than most. They do so easily, so they also progress much faster than their peers.

多数专家认为“天赋异禀的”孩子具有三种特质。首先,这类孩子对语言、数学或国际象棋等特殊规范的掌握远早于绝大多数人。他们做起来太容易了,所以他们的学习进度也远超同龄人。


Secondly, this mastery is achieved largely on their own, rather than as a result of parental prodding. A child’s surroundings and socio-economic background certainly affect their speed of development: there is a close correlation between the number of words a child’s parents have spoken to them by the time they’re three and the child’s academic success aged nine. Studies suggest that children born into professional families may have heard some 4m more words by then than the offspring of parents with lower educational backgrounds. Such families often have higher incomes to provide more educational opportunities too.

其次,对这些规范的掌握主要是靠他们一己之力完成的,而非父母敦促的结果。一个孩子的生长环境和社会经济背景必然会影响他们的成长速度:父母在孩子三岁前给他们说过多少词汇与孩子九岁时的学习成绩有密切关系。研究表明,高知家庭的孩子在三岁前可能会比父母学历较低的同龄人多听四百多万个单词。前一种家庭往往有更高的收入,能给孩子提供更多教育机会。


But Lyn Kendall, a consultant on gifted children at Mensa – who was herself a gifted child in a working-class family – insists that reading Nietzsche to your five-year-old, or forcing them to do three hours of extra homework, cannot “make” a genius.

但是林恩·肯德尔,门萨天才儿童的咨询师——她原本也是一个出生于工人阶级家庭的天才儿童——坚持认为,给你五岁的孩子读尼采,或是强迫他们每天多做三个小时的作业,并不能“培养出”一个天才。


Many children who have extremely high IQs show signs of extraordinary ability even as tiny babies, before pushy parenting is able to have much impact. “From a very early age – pre-language – these children understand what is going on around them, understand what people say but cannot respond,” says Kendall. Most toddlers appear to explore the world as they encounter it, distracted by passing cars or the arrival of a new toy. By contrast, Kendall describes gifted children of that age as “driven”: “They never stop and they set themselves incredibly high standards.” We often associate the early years of childhood with taking joy in simple things, living in the present and an inability to think through the consequences of actions. Instead, says Kendall, watching gifted toddlers, “it’s almost as if someone has taken an 18-year-old and put them in a newborn body.”

在父母的压力教育可以施加影响之前,很多高智商的孩子在婴儿时期就会呈现有特殊能力的迹象。肯德尔说,“在很小的时候、能说话之前,这些孩子就能理解周围在发生什么,知道别人在说什么,只是不能做出反应。”大多数幼童是在接触周围环境的过程中学着探索世界的,所以会因为路过的车辆或者新玩具而分心。然而,肯德尔将天才儿童在这个时期的状态形容为“被驱动”:“他们从不停止,而且给自己设置了很高的标准。”我们往往认为孩子在童年早期会喜欢简单的事物,只享受当下的快乐而无法预测行为的后果。但天才幼童并不符合这种普遍认知,肯德尔说,看看这些天才幼童,“就像是有人把十八岁时的心智放入了一个新生儿身体里”。


A third characteristic of gifted children is that their interests often seem near-obsessive. They have what is sometimes called “a rage to master”. Jesse is five. When he was one and crawling, his father Richard tells me, he would do anything to avoid having his nappy changed. “We found that the only way we could keep him still was to give him things to take apart and put back together again. We had a yellow torch with a built-in bulb, and he would take the battery out, put it back in, and test whether it worked. If he’d put the battery in the wrong way round, he’d persevere until he got it right.”

天才儿童的第三个特质是,他们对某方面的兴趣常达到近乎偏执的程度。他们有一种“征服的愤怒”。杰西现在五岁大。当他一岁还在爬的时候,他的父亲理查德告诉我,他会做出一切事情来阻止别人换掉自己的尿布。“我们发现,让他保持不动的唯一方法是给他一个可以拆开又能安回去的东西。我们有个内置灯泡的黄色手电筒,他会把电池取出来,又安回去,然后试试手电筒能否正常使用。如果把电池放反了,他就会不断尝试直到放对为止。”

 

The first IQ tests to measure intelligence were developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in the early 20th century. They evaluated short-term memory, analytical thinking and mathematical ability. Though the tests have changed since then, the basic skills they attempt to measure have remained the same. Within a few points either way, IQ is fixed throughout your life: the only way you’ll lose it is because of a brain injury.

第一个智商测试是在20世纪初由阿尔弗雷德·比奈和西奥多·西蒙两人发明的。该测试主要评估短期记忆、分析思维和数学能力。尽管这个测试后来有所改变,但测试针对的基本技能一直没变。除了小幅度地上下浮动,人的智商在一生中是基本固定的:只有脑部受损会让你失去智力。

 

So-called “intelligence” tests abound online. Many children take aptitude tests at school. Most of these can be gamed or, at least, children can be trained to excel at them. Mensa does its best to make its tests “culture fair” – in other words it aims to identify intelligence that is intrinsic rather than taught. “The original gifted children will have invented the wheel and discovered fire,” says Kendall. But even Kendall, who is in the business of evaluating children, admits that “testing IQ is not like measuring height”. No assessment is completely objective.

网上有很多所谓的智商测试。很多孩子在校都会做能力倾向测试。大多数测试都可以被设置成游戏,至少孩子们能通过训练在测试中拿到突出的成绩。门萨努力让其测试体现出“文化公平”——换言之,它想要辨别出与生俱来的而非后天教育所得的高智商。肯德尔说,“天生的天才儿童已经发明了车轮,发现了火。”但即使是为孩子们做智商测试的肯德尔也承认,“测试智商并不像测试身高一样”。没有完全客观的智商测试。


Most tests look only at particular types of intelligence, such as mathematical and verbal reasoning. That reflects how narrow society’s notions of giftedness are. Many other types of skill and characteristics are missed, such as voracious curiosity or the ability to make intellectual connections. The tests are unlikely to identify future novelists or poets, or children who may be exceptionally good at sports or music. We don’t yet have a way to measure creative, artistic or emotional intelligence. The sorts of children we rate as “geniuses” tend to be only those who fall into the standard categories.

大多数测试只关注特定方面的智力,比如数学和语言推理。这也反映出社会观念里天赋的概念有多狭隘。很多其他类型的技能和特质都被忽视了,比如不竭的好奇心或者关联知识的能力。现有的测试几乎不可能看出未来的小说家或诗人,或者会在运动或音乐方面拥有超常表现的孩子。我们现在还没有测试创新能力、艺术天赋或情商的方法。被我们列为天才的孩子往往只有符合特定标准的几类。


Some people question the very notion of giftedness. The definition of a gifted child has fragmented over time, says Deborah Eyre, founder of High Performance Learning, an organisation that works with schools and teachers in Britain to try to help large numbers of children become “high performers”. She does not see aptitude as innate. Eyre says that no matter where you look in the world, the children of wealthy parents are over-represented in cohorts of gifted children. Those who come from minority backgrounds are under-represented: “Latinos don’t get selected [for programmes] in the US, Maoris don’t in NewZealand.”

一些人质疑天赋的概念。“高效学习”机构(HighPerformance Learning)的创始人德博拉·埃尔表示,人们对有天赋的孩子的定义已出现了分歧。这一机构与英国的学校和老师合作,意在帮助大量的孩子取得突出表现。她不认为能力倾向是与生俱来的。她说无论在世界上哪个地方,家境富裕的孩子都在有天赋的孩子中占据了过高比例。而少数族裔后代的比例却过低:“拉丁裔的孩子不会被美国(的研究项目)选中,毛利人的子女也不会被新西兰选中。”


She also says that what marks out brilliant and high-achieving children – and adults – is often determination. The difference between two equally talented physicists, one who goes on to win a Nobel prize and one who does not, is their will to succeed. Apparent genius, she argues, is a combination of some kind of potential, along with the right support and personal drive.

她还说,让智力出众且成就突出的孩子和成人区别于其他人的往往是决心。两个天赋相同的物理学家,一个取得诺贝尔奖而另一个没有,差别就在于他们意欲获得成功的决心。埃尔认为,所谓的天才是某种天赋、适当的外部支持以及自驱力的结合体。


Eyre claims that a certain type of parent, usually a highly educated one, takes pride in having a “gifted child” to show off. But this view wasn’t borne out by the parents I spoke to, most of whom found their children’s gifts to be a source of anxiety, even distress.

埃尔称,有一类父母以有一个可资炫耀的天才孩子为傲,他们通常接受过高等教育。但与我交谈过的父母却并非如此,他们中大多数都认为孩子的天赋是焦虑甚至痛苦的来源。


Many of these parents face two main difficulties. One is how to cater to the advanced intellectual development of their child. The second dimension is more rarely voiced but may cause just as many problems: exceptionally intelligent children are often socially isolated, even disruptive. Gifts that are admired in the abstract often seem less welcome in person.

大多数天才儿童的父母主要面临两大困境。其一是如何满足自家孩子超乎常人的智力发展的相应需求。第二点更少被提及,但带来的麻烦不比前者少:拥有超常智力的孩子常常在社交关系中被孤立,甚至被欺凌。印象中为人羡慕的天赋在与人交往时常常不那么受欢迎。

天赋的诅咒

If you were to meet Ophelia Gregory, you’d think that the good fairies must have clustered around her cradle. Now 17, she is willowy and beautiful, with deep-green eyes. Her family – mother Kerry, father Tom and three younger brothers – is close and loving. At the age of 12, Ophelia clocked 162 in Mensa’s IQ test. It is the highest possible score for someone under 18, and on a level with Stephen Hawking, the ground-breaking cosmologist who died last year.

如果你认识欧菲莉亚·格雷戈里,你可能会觉得她的生活从出生起就是美好的童话。她现在十七岁,身材苗条、面容姣好,有一双深绿色的眼睛。她的家庭:母亲克里,父亲汤姆和三个弟弟,一家人亲密有爱。十二岁时,欧菲莉亚在门萨智商测试中得了162分。这是十八岁以下受试者可能得到的最高分,与史蒂芬·霍金处于同一水平,他是宇宙学领军人物,已于2018年离世。


Yet so far, extraordinary intelligence has brought Ophelia little happiness. For her, being categorised as “gifted” is simply “more trouble than it’s worth”. She has been bullied and changed schools several times. I wonder what Kerry would say to a parent longing for a gifted child? “I’d say, ‘It should be a great thing, but it’s not. It neverwill be.’”

然而到目前为止,超常的智力并未给欧菲莉亚带去多少快乐。对她来说,被视为“有天赋”“相比它的价值带来了更多麻烦”。她曾经受到欺凌,已经换过好几次学校。我问她的母亲克里会对一个希望孩子获得天赋的父母说什么。“我会说,‘天赋本应该是件好事,但它不是。永远不会是。’”


We have long known that some individuals have extraordinarily high intelligence. Only more recently have psychologists started to look at whether and how this affects other areas of these individuals’ lives. Gifted children often experience what psychologists call “asynchronous development”: exceptional abilities in some areas may be associated with, or come at the cost of other aspects of maturity. “The parts of the brain that control the learning of words, patterns and numbers develop extremely quickly in these children,” says Andrea Anguera of Potential Plus. “But the frontal lobe, which controls the regulation of emotions, doesn’t develop as fast.”

一直以来,我们都知道一些人有超高智力。只是直到最近心理学家才开始研究这种高智商是否会、以及会如何影响这些人生活的其他方面。天才儿童常常会有心理学家称之为“非同时发育(asynchronous development)”的情况:某些方面的突出能力可能与其他方面的发育成熟有关,甚至以后者的发育成熟为代价。在“潜在优势”机构工作的安德里亚·安格拉说,“这些孩子大脑中控制语言、图案和数字学习的部分发育飞速,但控制情绪管理的大脑额叶却没有以同样速度发育。”


A gifted child may have an advanced ability to master something like maths, but more limited capacity to deal with their social environment which is another important part of growing up and fitting in over the course of their lives. “A gifted child might be prone to complete social meltdowns,” says Anguera. “They can’t understand how other children work, and they can’t control their emotions.” Being exceptionally able in some areas means they need “the right support” in others, she says.

一个天才儿童也许能超前掌握某些事物,如数学方面,但他们应对社会环境的能力却相对不足,而后者对于一个人成长和适应生活而言也很重要。“一个天才儿童可能很容易在人际交往上彻底败下阵来,”安格拉说,“他们不能理解其他孩子的行为机制,也不会控制自己的情绪。”她还表示,在一些领域有超常能力意味着他们在其他方面需要“适当的帮助”。


In the early 20th century American psychologist Leta Holling worth talked about “socially optimal intelligence”, which she associated with an IQ of between 125 and 155. Ratchet the score beyond that, and what Norman Geschwind, an American behavioural neurologist, termed a “pathology of superiority” can creep in: the dominance of one bit of the brain can affect the development of other parts.

在二十世纪早期,美国心理学家利塔·霍林沃斯论及“社交最优智力”,她认为这个值在125到155之间。如果智商超过这个最高分,孩子就会表现出美国行为神经学家诺曼·杰斯克温得提出的“优越感病理学”(pathologyof superiority)的特征,即大脑中一个部分的主导作用可能影响其他部分的发展。


We don’t yet know why this is, or whether it’s down to nature, nurture or both. One study shows that among members of Mensa in America, the rate of ADHD (attention deficit hyper activity disorder) is almost twice that diagnosed in the general population. Others argue that because some gifted children are so different from their peers at school, and may interact little with them in the classroom, they may do so less in the playground too. Though in some ways their aptitudes are very adult, many find themselves unable to play games that we often refer to as “childish”: their social development is more restricted. If an exceptionally able five-year-old spends her free time doing algebra, says Anguera, she often doesn’t want to spend time with a peer who prefers to play with cars. Yet once a child is left out of some social situations, her opportunity to catch up or learn these skills diminishes.

我们目前不知道这一现象的原因,也不知道这是天生的,还是后天教育导致的,或是二者都有影响。一个研究显示,在美国门萨的成员中,ADHD(注意缺陷多动障碍,我国也称之为“多动症”)患者的比例是整体人口中ADHD患者比例的两倍。其他研究认为,因为这些天才儿童与同龄人在学校的表现差异太大,所以很少与其他孩子在教室互相交往,在运动场上就更少了。尽管在一些方面他们的能力倾向很成人化,但很多研究都发现他们玩不了我们眼里“幼稚”的游戏,所以社交能力发展就更为有限。安格拉说,如果一个有超常能力的五岁小孩把她的时间都花在代数上,她通常不会想和那些玩玩具车的同龄人一起打发时间。然而一旦孩子在一些社交场景中被落下了,她就会失去赶上其他人或学习这些社交技能的机会。


Kendall identifies several characteristics common among gifted children who have no identified behavioural disorders. One trait is that many of them are deeply anxious, usually as a result of over-thinking everything. “Your brain has the capacity to work out all the variables,” she explains, “so it inevitably does.” Hilary emailed me about her son, Lorenzo: “I am finding it increasingly difficult to cope with his heightened emotion and anxiety.” Lorenzo, now 12, became a member of Mensa two years ago and so has opportunities to mix with other very bright kids both in person and online. Lorenzo scored 162 in his IQ test (“Same as Einstein,” Hilary tells me. I don’t have the heart to tell her that Einstein never had his IQ measured). He worries incessantly: “Waiting for a flight to Hong Kong recently, he asked so many questions about what might go wrong with the plane that the waiting hall cleared around us.”

肯德尔在未被识别出行为障碍的天才儿童身上发现了一些共同特征。特质之一是他们中大多数都深感焦虑,而这通常是因为他们对所有事情都想得太多。她说,“你的大脑有能力去计算所有变量,所以它必然会这么做。”希拉里就他儿子洛伦佐的情况给我发来一封邮件:“我发现要应付他强烈的情绪和焦虑越来越难了。”洛伦佐现在十二岁,两年前加入门萨,所以有机会和其他同样聪明的孩子在线下线上打成一片。洛伦佐在智商测试中得了162分(“和爱因斯坦一样,”希拉里对我说。我没有告诉她爱因斯坦从未做过智商测试,因为于心不忍)。洛佐伦无时无刻不在担心:“最近一次去香港候机的时候,他就飞机可能出现的故障不断提问,以至于候机室中坐在我们周围的人都走开了。”


The sleeping pattern of such children often differs from the norm: switching off their brains can be very difficult. The mother of one gifted child told me that he didn’t sleep for more than 90 minutes at a stretch until he was nearly five.

这类孩子的睡眠模式通常也和普通孩子不同:因为很难“关掉”他们的大脑。一个天才儿童的母亲告诉我,她的孩子直到快五岁时,每次睡觉不超90分钟就一定会醒。


The emotional and physical health associations with genius don’t stop there. The American branch of Mensa, which has more than 50,000 members, refers to its affiliates as having “hyper brains”. A recent survey of its members suggested that people with exceptionally high intelligence very often have what Kazimierz Dabrowski, a Polish psychologist, dubs “over-excitabilities” or “super-sensibilities”, such as a heightened awareness of one of the five senses, experiencing extremely intense emotions or having very high levels of energy. Among these individuals, the incidence of depression, anxiety and ADHD is higher than in the average population.

天才们情绪和心理健康的关联并不止于此。门萨美国分部拥有超过五万成员,并称它的成员拥有“超级大脑”。近日关于其成员的一个研究表明,有超高智商的人经常表现出波兰心理学家卡齐米日·达柏斯基口中的“过度兴奋”(over-excitabilities)或“超级敏感”(super-sensibilities),比如五感之一尤其突出,有时情绪极度强烈或有精力高度旺盛。在这些人中,抑郁症、焦虑和ADHD的概率都比总人口的平均水平高。


Giftedness may even be linked with physiological conditions such as food allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases, which sometimes go hand-in-hand with “sensory processing disorder”. For many exceptionally intelligent individuals, everyday stimuli such as a radio playing in the background, the colour or texture of food, a vibrant display on a classroom wall or a scratchy label in a piece of clothing can become almost unbearable. Because his brain function is so acute, Lorenzo’s senses are more than usually finely tuned, believes Hilary. “He can hear things that we can’t. He can find it impossible to do his homework in a room that would seem to most people completely silent.”

天赋还可能与生理状况相关,比如食物过敏、哮喘和自身免疫疾病,有时还与“感官处理失调”(sensory processing disorder)关系密切。对于很多智力超常的个体而言,日常的刺激都可能是无法忍受的,比如与周围环境融为一体的收音机声响、食物的颜色或口感、教室墙壁上醒目的光影变幻、或是一件衣服上刺痒皮肤的标签。母亲希拉里认为,由于洛伦佐的大脑功能极其灵敏,他的感觉也比常人更敏锐。“他能听见我们听不见的声音。在一个多数人都觉得完全安静的房间里,他却可能因为感到嘈杂而根本无法工作。”


“Neurologically, high IQ goes with increased efficiency in neural functioning,” says Sonja Falck, a psychotherapist in Britain who works almost exclusively with clients of “extreme intelligence”. “That’s measurable,” continues Falck. “If a person is getting a lot of stimulation and processing it very quickly, they are susceptible to being over-stimulated.”

“神经学上,高智商常常伴着神经功能的高效,”英国的心理治疗医师索尼娅·福尔克说到,她的治疗对象几乎都是超高智力者。“这是可测量的,”福尔克说,“如果一个人受到大量刺激时能迅速反应,他们很容易受过度刺激的影响。”


Many gifted children struggle with failure. The trouble, Kendall explains, is that if you’re known for being a brainbox you don’t have to try, and so don’t build up resilience. She works with many bright children who “won’t put pen to paper”. At workshops she runs for gifted children, the kids sometimes play Twister, a game where players contort themselves over a mat covered with coloured dots. “They’re in hysterics,” Kendall says. “You can’t get it right so you’re teaching them to do something just for the joy of it.”

很多有天赋的孩子都在与失败做斗争。肯德尔解释称,麻烦在于,如果你因绝顶聪明为人所知,你就不需要努力,也就无法形成抗逆能力。她与很多不需要借助纸笔思考的聪明孩子打交道。在她专门为天才儿童开设的工作坊里,孩子们经常玩扭扭乐,游戏的参与者在一张有五颜六色波点的毯子上拧转自己的身体。“他们变得歇斯底里,”肯德尔说,“你解决不了让这些孩子抓狂的问题,所以就教他们只为了快乐去做一些事。”

天赋的诅咒

Rebecca’s daughter Lizzie is five. She was conceived with donor sperm and her biological father had three degrees. Ahead of her first birthday she was using whole sentences. She completed a puzzle with 48 pieces in which she had to match pictures to the corresponding words at 16 months. By her second birthday she could recite “The Gruffalo”, a 24-page children’s story written in rhyme; when Rebecca forgot her face-cloth at bath time, Lizzie chided, “Mummy, you are an abomination!” Aged three, she announced, “Mummy, I’m not pretty. It’s my chromosomes’ fault.” But like many gifted children, she can become distraught if she gets things wrong. “Some days I feel sorry for her,” says Rebecca. “I just want her to be as normal as possible.”

丽贝卡的女儿莉齐现在五岁。她是丽贝卡接受捐助人的精子怀上的孩子,她生物学上的父亲有三个学位。一岁生日之前,她已经能用完整的句子讲话。十六个月大的时候,她完成了一个需要把图案和词汇对应起来的48块拼图。两岁生日前,她可以背诵二十四页的押韵儿童故事“咕噜牛”;当丽贝卡在莉齐洗澡时忘记拿洗脸巾,她会斥责,“妈妈,你太讨厌了!”三岁时,她宣称,“妈妈,我不漂亮。这是我染色体的错。”但和很多天才儿童一样,当事情没有按照她预想的进行时,她就会抓狂。“有些时候我感到对不起她,”丽贝卡说,“我只是希望她能尽量普通一些。”


That is difficult. Ahead of play dates, Rebecca clears away Lizzie’s toys so that the other mothers can’t see how advanced she is. People look for gifted children to fail, says Rebecca, “I’ve learned to cover for Lizzie.” Rebecca teaches children with special needs, but says that for her daughter’s particular needs “there’s nothing”.

这很困难。在与其他妈妈和孩子约好的聚会之前,为了不让其他妈妈看出莉齐比同龄人超前了多少,丽贝卡会把莉齐的玩具都清理掉。人们都希望看见天才儿童跌倒,丽贝卡说,“我已经学着为莉齐打掩护。”丽贝卡本身从事教育行业,她的学生都有特殊的需求,但论及自己女儿的特殊需求,她会说“没这回事”。


Sonja Falck is wary of the word “gifted” because “it connotes privilege”, in that the gifted person is seen as having an advantage over everyone else. But it’s not necessarily an advantage. “Someone who is gifted, but who grows up in an environment that is not supportive, can really suffer. This suffering is hugely under-acknowledged.” Falck tells me about a client of hers who had an abortion: she couldn’t bear the idea of giving birth to a child who might suffer for her “gifts” as she had.

索尼娅•福尔克慎用“有天赋的”一词,因为“它意味着特权”,它意味着有天赋的人比其他人更有优势。但天赋并不一定是种优势。“如果有天赋却出生在一个得不到所需支持的环境中,孩子就会非常痛苦。这种痛苦被大大低估了。”福尔克告诉我她有位客人去堕了胎:因为她无法承受这种想法——给一个孩子生命,却可能让孩子和自己一样因天赋而痛苦。


Emily’s son Peter is nine. Since he was tiny he has preferred adult company to that of his peers: “At nursery, he used to sob all morning,” says Emily. Physically fragile and a loner, he has ended up in hospital three times after being beaten up at school. In common with many gifted children he has difficulty eating because he is hyper-sensitive to food textures. But for Peter, as for many other children, the greatest problem is that humdrum, day-to-day life is so hard to deal with. He finds school crushingly dull. His head teacher doesn’t see that this is a problem. “A bit of boredom is quite good for you,” he told Emily.

埃米莉的儿子彼得现在九岁。从他非常小的时候,他就更喜欢和成年人待在一起,而不是同龄人。埃米莉说,“在托儿所里,他常常会哭一整个早上。”身体的脆弱以及孤独不合群,已经三次让他在学校被打后住院。和其他天才儿童一样,他吃东西很困难,因为他对食物的口感非常敏感。但对于彼得以及其他天才儿童来说,最大的问题还是无聊,日复一日的生活太难熬了。他觉得学校无聊到难以忍受。他的班主任却不觉得这是个问题。“一点点无聊(对彼得这样的孩子来说)挺好的,”他告诉埃米莉。


But boredom can be torture. A gifted student needs a fraction of the hours to master a GCSE subject that the school curriculum typically devotes to that subject, suggests Falck. She compares it to a seasoned runner being forced every day to trudge in step with people who walk extremely slowly.

但无聊可能是一种折磨。福尔克表示,一个天才儿童只需要花学校课程时间的一小部分,就可以掌握GCSE的一门科目。她说这就像一个经验丰富的赛跑运动员每天被迫和一群走得特别慢的人用一样步速前进。


How best to educate a gifted child? The challenges are complex and often competing. On the one hand they are able to master material sooner and more rapidly than their peers. On the other, because the social skills of many such children are poorly developed, it can be extremely difficult for them to be a child in the traditional sense, to fit in and to learn many of the non-verbal, non-testable skills that social activity teaches you in preparation for being an adult. And without meaning to, such children may come across as smart-arses who, even with the best of intentions, other kids and adults may simply not wish to be around. Adults, especially teachers, may find extremely clever children threatening: a small child talking to you as an equal can put you on the back foot. They literally know more than the adults around them and can’t help but tell them so.

怎样教育那些有天赋的孩子才最好?这种挑战是复杂且有竞争性的。一方面,他们能比同龄人更早更快地掌握新知识。另一方面,这些孩子因为社会生活技能发展得很差,因而很难将他们视为传统意义上的“孩子”——需要去适应和学习很多成年后参与人际交往所需的非语言、不可测试的技能。这些孩子无意如此,但他们可能被看成聪明的讨厌鬼,即使他们的心地非常善良,其他孩子和成年人也可能就是不想和他们待在一起。成年人,尤其是老师,可能会视天才儿童为威胁:和一个小孩平等对话可能会让大人陷入被动。他们确实比身边的成年人知道得多,而且会情不自禁地告诉他们这一事实。


After Tom’s assessment at Potential Plus, Chrissie sought advice on how best to educate him. It was obvious to her that his south-London primary school couldn’t cope. Apart from his first teacher at the school, whom Tom describes as “incredible” and who encouraged his interest in maths by sitting with him during break times to work through problems, his other teachers seemed to hate him. One appeared to enjoy belittling him, announcing to the class that “Tom found maths hard today,” while neglecting to mention that he was doing work meant for children ten years older than him.

汤姆在“潜在优势”机构做完测试之后,克里西询问别人关于怎样教育汤姆才最好的建议。在她看来,现在那所伦敦南部的小学显然不再合适汤姆。汤姆认为他在校接触的第一个老师“非常好”,这位老师在休息时间和汤姆一起解决数学问题,以此支持汤姆在数学方面的兴趣。除此之外,其他老师似乎都讨厌汤姆。其中一位表现得很喜欢贬低汤姆,他曾当着全班的面说“汤姆今天觉得数学难喽”,却故意不说那些题目是为比他大十岁的孩子准备的。


Chrissie was told she had two options: she could either home-school Tom or send him to a private school that could give him more individual attention. Both ideas horrified her. She disagreed with home-schooling on principle – surely it would exacerbate his feeling of isolation. Private school was beyond the family’s financial means, but Tom received a bursary and now attends a respected, selective school in London, where the annual fees are £20,000. He still struggles to relate to other kids, and finds the economic disparity between him and his fellow pupils shocking. But he finds the teaching more stimulating. “I do like her, and she has given me harder work,” he says of his maths teacher.

克里西被告知有两个选择:要么在家教汤姆,要么把他送到一个可以给他更多单独照顾的私立学校。两种思路都把她吓坏了。原则上她不同意在家教汤姆——因为这肯定会加剧汤姆的孤独感。同时,私立学校的费用超出了这个家庭的经济承受能力,但汤姆收到了助学金,现在已经进入伦敦一所备受尊敬、招生严格的学校学习,那里的学费高达每年两万英镑。他与其他孩子的互动交流仍然困难,而且他发现自己和其他人在家境上的差距大得惊人。但他觉得老师的教学内容更有挑战性了。“我确实喜欢她,她给了我更难的作业。”他说的是自己的数学老师。

 

Debate rages about the wisdom of accelerating children out of their age group. If they are moved up, they may struggle socially. If they stay down, they may switch off intellectually. Students need social and psychological support, says Leonie Kronborg of the University of Monash in Australia. She points to programmes for gifted adolescents like the Early Entrance Programme at the University of Washington in America: young teenagers can begin studying at university as part of a group of similarly advanced people their own age, so they are intellectually stimulated but keep socialising with their peers.

如何使孩子加速发展、超越同龄人?人们对这种教育智慧的讨论正盛。对于天才儿童来说,如果加速发展,就可能在社交层面感到痛苦;但如果停滞不前,智力就会得不到发展。澳大利亚莫纳什大学的蕾奥妮·卡隆堡说,孩子们需要社会和心理层面的(双重)支持。她提及那些为有天赋的青少年开设的项目,比如美国华盛顿大学的“提早入学计划”(Early Entrance Programme):青少年可以和他们同样高智商的同龄孩子组成小组,一起开启大学学习,这样他们既能在智力上得到刺激,又能和同龄人保持交往。


Faced with sons and daughters who are bored and miserable at school, many parents of gifted children opt to take things into their own hands. Chrissie’s fears aside, home-schooling is surprisingly common for gifted children of highly educated parents. In the mid-1980s a father and daughter, Harry and Ruth Lawrence, made a striking pair, travelling around Oxford on a tandem bicycle. Harry had given up his career in computing and home-educated Ruth since she was five; at 12 she won a place to study maths at Oxford University. Harry accompanied Ruth to all her lectures, making sure that she never “wasted” time by socialising with other young people. She now works as a respected – but not outstanding – mathematician. When she had her first child, she vowed not to push him to move any faster academically than he wanted to.

面对在学校感到无聊和痛苦的孩子,许多天才孩子的父母选择由自己承担孩子的教育责任。抛开克里西的担忧不谈,家庭教育在父母有高等教育背景的家庭中惊人的普遍。在20世纪80年代中期,父亲哈利·劳伦斯带着女儿露丝·劳伦斯骑双人自行车环牛津旅行,轰动一时。哈利放弃了自己计算机领域的事业,从露丝五岁时起在家教她;十二岁时,露丝就获得了在牛津大学学习数学的机会。哈利陪露丝上所有的课程,保证她从不在和其他年轻人的社交上“浪费”时间。她现在是个数学家,受人尊敬但并不杰出。有自己第一个孩子时,她发誓除非孩子自愿,否则她绝不会在学业上给孩子压力。


Some countries have cultivated an educational environment that is welcoming to gifted children. Singapore runs a highly selective programme designed to identify the most exceptionally intelligent students each year. At the age of eight or nine all children are assessed in maths, English and reasoning. The top 1% are transferred from “normal” classes to the Gifted Education Programme which is run in nine primary schools up to the age of 12. They can then choose whether to attend certain secondary schools that offer such classes. Selected children get “personalised education plans” that include teaching on particular topics in greater depth and breadth, access to additional self-taught online courses, placement in higher classes for specific subjects, and early admission to primary school for very young children. But emphasising educational attainment has proved controversial. Since 2007, there have been efforts to increase socialisation between children of different abilities.

一些国家已经打造出适合天才儿童的教育环境。新加坡运营着一个选拔极其严格的项目,每年都会挑选最高智商的学生。在八、九岁的时候,所有孩子都要参加数学、英语和推理考试。前百分之一的孩子就从普通班进入“天才教育计划”,这个计划在九所小学施行,直到孩子长到十二岁时结束。届时他们可以选择是否进入那些计划选定的提供同样课堂的特定中学。被选中的孩子会获得“个性化的培养方案”,比如在一些话题上教得更深更广,有机会参加附加的线上自学课程,有机会进入高年级班级学习特定科目,或是对非常小的孩子来说有机会更早进入小学。但对教育成果的强调却引发了争议。从2007年开始,社会一直在为增进不同能力孩子之间的交往而努力。

 

Such an approach reflects a very traditional idea of intelligence – using certain types of tests to identify children with apparently innate intellectual abilities. Elsewhere educationalists are using a broader range of methods to spot highly intelligent children and increasing their focus on attitudes and personality traits often found in the most successful people – the drive, for instance, that Deborah Eyre talks about. In Project Bright Idea, a programme at Duke University in North Carolina, 10,000 ordinary nursery and primary-school children were taught using methods usually applied to the cleverest kids – fostering high expectations, encouraging complex problem-solving and developing meta-cognition(“thinking about thinking”). Nearly all of them went on to do much better in tests than their comparable peers.

这一教育方式反映出对智力的传统观念——用特定类型的测试去鉴别那些有着与生俱来天赋的天才儿童。其他地方的教育工作者使用更多样的方法去识别超高智力的孩子,并且更加关注顶级成功人士身上所具备的态度和性格特质——比如德博拉·爱所说的驱动力。在卡罗莱纳州北部的杜克大学的“金点子计划”(Project Bright Idea)中,一万个来自普通托儿所和学前班的孩子接受着通常适用于最聪明孩子的教育形式——培养高期望,鼓励解决复杂问题,以及发展元认识(meta-cognition,即“对思考的思考”)。几乎所有孩子都在之后的学习中比其他同龄人表现得更优异。


What will become of Tom and Ophelia, Lizzie, Lorenzo and Peter? Raj Chetty, an American economist at Harvard University has calculated that those who score in the top 5% of standard tests at primary school are many times more likely than the other 95% to file patents as adults – and that probability is far higher among bright kids from rich families. Whatever their natural talents, children whose aptitudes are nurtured and given opportunities have a far better chance in life.

汤姆、奥菲莉娅、莉齐、洛伦佐和彼得在未来会怎样?哈佛大学的美国经济学家拉齐·切迪计算过,小学成绩在前百分之五的孩子成年后申请专利的可能性比后百分之九十五的孩子高出数倍,也远高于富裕家庭的聪明孩子。无论孩子的天赋如何,那些能力倾向是因后天教育所得且拥有机会的孩子,在未来人生中获得成功的可能性远远更高。


But gifted children do not necessarily shine later on. Some are what Chetty refers to as “lost Einsteins”: children who weren’t given an outlet for their intelligence or the encouragement to stretch their intellect, or who needed help to deal with the isolation of their experience. There are those whose abilities are missed by the limitations of IQ tests. And there are the many exceptional children who face barriers in later years because they never developed the interpersonal skills needed to succeed in the workplace or the wider world of social activity.

但有天赋的孩子们长大后未必会大放异彩。其中一些人被切迪称作“迷茫的爱因斯坦”,这些孩子没有机会发挥智力,或是未曾受到鼓励去发展才智,或是需要外界的帮助去应对生活中的孤独感。也有些孩子的能力因为智力测试的局限而被忽视。还有很多有天赋的孩子在成长过程中遇到阻碍,因为他们没有掌握为获得职场上的成功或立足于更宽广的社会之中所必需的人际交往技能。


In the 1920s Lewis Terman, an American psychologist, studied 1,500 children with very high intelligence. Others followed up that group 70 years later. They found that they had accomplished no more than their socio-economic status would have predicted. One child Terman excluded as not bright enough, William Shockley, had co-invented the transistor and won the Nobel prize in physics.

在20世纪20年代,美国心理学家刘易斯·特尔曼研究了1500个超高智商的孩子。其他研究者在七十年后延续了这个研究。他们发现,这些孩子取得的成就并未超过他们(家庭)的社会经济地位。其中有个孩子曾因为不够聪明被特尔曼排除在外,他叫威廉·肖克利,后来与人共同发明了晶体管并获得了诺贝尔物理学奖。


And an unhappy childhood stays with you. KimUng-yong was a child prodigy in South Korea. Now a civil engineer in his 50s, he feels he was cheated of a childhood. He began speaking at six months and had mastered four languages by the age of two. He gained his first PhD aged eight, and was then headhunted to work for NASA. “I led my life like a machine,” he has said. “I woke up, solved the daily assigned equation, ate, slept… I was lonely and had no friends.” Even Albert Einstein, one of the most emblematic examples of genius, wrote in 1952: “It is strange to be known so universally and yet be so lonely.”

而且你的童年不会快乐。金恩荣曾经是韩国的一个神童。他现在是一个土木工程师,五十多岁年纪,觉得自己的童年被骗走了。他在六个月时开始说话,两岁时就掌握了四种语言,八岁时获得了首个博士学位,然后被NASA挖走。“我活得就像一个机器,”他说,“我睡醒起来,完成每日布置的方程式,然后吃饭、睡觉……我很孤独,一个朋友也没有。”连阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦这种天才中的天才,也在1952年写下过这样的句子:“我那般家喻户晓,却如此孤独,这很奇怪。”


That’s a bleak message for the child geniuses of today. Looking to the future, Tom’s mum Chrissie doesn’t seem hopeful. “Show me a story of a child like this which ends well,” she says. “They don’t exist.” Then she turns to Tom reassuringly. “Maybe you will be the first.”

爱因斯坦的话对如今的天才儿童是一则了无希望的讯息。当展望未来时,汤姆的妈妈克里西看起来不怀期望。“告诉我,有没有同样的孩子获得了好结局的?”她说。“他们不存在的。”然后她转向汤姆鼓励道:“可能你就是第一个。”


👇


参考阅读:

1. radiolabG系列:

IQ测试是如何进行的,又是否科学?IQ测试如何反作用于政治、教育?

以下为其中两期链接:

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/g-relative-genius

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/g-problem-space


2. [美]埃伦·温纳所著书籍《天才儿童》中提到:那种关于天才儿童完全能适应环境的想法只适用于一般天才,对超常天才来说是不适用的。揭开蒙在天才问题上的神秘面纱,我们会意外发现如下几点:

– 儿童在某一领域可以是天才,但在另一领域却可能能力平平,甚至无学习能力。可见,各种能力是可以相互独立存在的。

– 高智商与美术或音乐天赋无相关性。

– 天才的大脑与常人不同。

– 在天才培养方面,家庭所起作用远胜于学校。

– 天才同无能力一样,亦可导致郁郁寡欢与不合群现象。

– 性格特征比儿童天赋程度的高低更能可靠地预测天才儿童长大成人后的状况。




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  • 本文原载于 1843 Magazine

  • 原文链接:

    https://www.1843magazine.com/features/the-curse-of-genius


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