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裸照即艺术

裸照即艺术



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裸照即艺术


作者:Diana Spechler 

译者:唐萧

校对:邓舒丹

策划:唐萧 & 刘蕊


It has become an act of resilience in isolation, a way to seduce without touch.

它已成为一种与世隔绝的恢复行为,一种无需触摸的诱惑方式。


Before face-touching became potentially lethal, my friend Dave had a lot of lovers. Now he makes do with nude selfies. He doesn’t even request them, he said. They appear as if by magic: “I wake up and they are just there.”

在人与人互相接触可能致命之前,我的朋友戴夫有很多情人。现在,他用裸照做爱。他甚至都不用要对方的照片,他说。这些照片的出现仿佛被施了魔法一般:“我一醒来,就会收到裸照。”


Matthew, an artist in Providence, R.I., said, “I keep getting explicit photos from people I thought were just my friends.” He added, “It’s nice to know they’re thinking of me.”

普罗维登斯的艺术家马修说,“我不断从那些我觉得‘只是朋友’的人那里得到高清裸照。”他补充道:“很高兴知道他们在想我。”


Since the pandemic began, sex has changed: It’s imagined, monogamous, Zoomed or Skyped. And nude selfies have become one symbol of resilience, a refusal to let social distancing render us sexless. Nude selfies are no longer foreplay, a whetting of a lover’s appetite, but the whole meal.

自疫情爆发以来,性发生了变化:它是想象出来的,一对一的,通过Zoom或Skype进行。裸体已经成为一种恢复力的象征,是对隔离使人无法做爱的一种抵制。裸照不再是前戏,它不再是情欲的开胃菜,而是一整餐。


Though the debate about art versus pornography has never been settled, a case can be made that quarantine nude selfies are art. Some of us finally have time to make art, and this is the art we are making: carefully posed, cast in shadows, expertly filtered. These aren’t garish below-the-belt shots under fluorescent lighting, a half-used roll of toilet paper in the background. They are solicited or spontaneous. They are gifts to partners in separate quarantines, friends who aren’t exactly friends, unmet Hinge matches and exes. (Exes are popping up like whack-a-moles these days.)

虽然关于艺术与色情界限问题的争论从来没有定论,但可以肯定地说,隔离下的裸照是艺术。我们中的一些人终于有时间去创造艺术,而这就是我们正在创造的艺术:小心地摆好姿势,投射阴影,熟练地加滤镜。这些照片不是在荧光灯下拍摄的废片,背景是一卷用了一半的卫生纸。它们是主动或者自发发送的。这是各自隔离在家的伴侣送给对方的礼物,他们是朋友,却不是真正的朋友,他们是铰链(Hinge)上未见面的“匹配对象”,是从前的情人(这些天来,前任相约像打地鼠游戏一样层出不穷)。


“Before the quarantine, I navigated under a ‘nudes are for boyfriends’ rule,” said Zoe, a marketing assistant in Los Angeles. “Something special for someone I trust. But in times of loneliness I turn to serial dating and now that plays out via virtual connections.”

佐伊是洛杉矶的一位营销助理,她说:“在居家隔离之前,我的规则是‘只为男友裸体’。”“这是给我信任的人一种特别的东西。但是在如今这种孤独下,我连续不断地约会,而现在,这一切都是通过虚拟的联系来实现的。”


Kat, an artist in Arizona who just lost her uncle to Covid-19, has been enjoying the creative process of making and sending sexy selfies over a secure app called Wire to a bartender she met overseas just before the coronavirus ended nonessential travel. “Not to distract from feeling my feelings,” she said. “This is just the human experience, isn’t it? Love. Death. Sex.”

凯特是亚利桑那州的一位艺术家,她的叔叔刚不幸死于本次疫情。她一直在享受着一个创造性的过程,那就是在冠状病毒得到控制之前,通过一个叫Wire的app给她在国外遇到过的一个酒保发裸照。“这不是为了分散我的心思,”她说。“这只是人类经历,不是吗?爱。死亡。性。”


If historically the nude form in art suggested power in men (think ancient Greek sculptures of athletes) and sexuality in women (think Goya’s “La Maja Desnuda” and every other painting of a woman by a man), nude selfies, especially now, imbue the subject with both. The sexuality component is obvious, the power component contextual: the power to seduce without touch, to connect when physical contact is life-threatening, to impress while we’re home and unemployed (and sweat-suited) and to stir up a strong reaction miles away.

从历史上看,艺术中的裸体形式暗示了男性的力量(想想古希腊运动员雕塑)和女性的性欲(想想弗朗西斯科•戈雅的《裸体的马哈》和其他所有男性画的女人)。裸照,特别是在现在,更证明了这一点。性的意味是显而易见的,权力的意味则需要语境来凸显:没有触摸就可吸引,在肢体接触威胁生命时结成联系,在待业在家、身着运动服时使人印象深刻,以及引起几英里之外的强烈反应。

裸照即艺术

Goya’s “La Maja Desnuda,” painted around 1800.

弗朗西斯科•戈雅,《裸体的马哈》,1800年左右。


“There has always been a subterranean culture of salacious communication, from love letters to fiction to erotic imagery added to manuscripts, as a way of escaping the constraints of reality,” said Constant Mews, the director of the Center for Religious Studies at Monash University in Australia.

澳大利亚莫纳什大学宗教研究中心主任Constant Mews说:“作为逃避现实束缚的一种方式,情书、小说和文稿中添加的色情意象中一直存在着一种色情交流的隐秘文化。


He sent me to a Pinterest page called Medieval Erotics. He referred me to “The Decameron,” Giovanni Boccaccio’s 14th-century literary response to the Black Plague, a collection of 100 short stories in which characters, desperate for distraction from all that illness and death, entertain one another with often bawdy tales. In modern life, has reality ever been so constraining? Has technology ever provided such escapism?

他向我展示了一个叫做“中世纪色情”的Pinterest网页。他引用了薄伽丘十四世纪所著的《十日谈》。它讲的是黑死病爆发后,主人公为了逃避疾病、死亡而用讲故事的方式来消遣,最终十天讲了一百个故事。在现代生活中,现实是否一直如此束缚人?科技又是否提供了这样逃避现实的机会?

裸照即艺术

The garden of delights depicted in a manuscript, circa 1470.

手稿中所绘的取乐的花园,约1470年。


Beyond our Wi-Fi, we don’t have much in the way of connection. Many of us are alone and live in small spaces. We lack the distractions we’re accustomed to and the routines we rely on. But some of the most famous self-portraiture resulted from a dearth of resources. Rembrandt was his own subject in large part because he couldn’t afford a model. Frida Kahlo began painting herself when she was unwell and bedridden and all she could see was a mirror.

除了Wi-Fi,我们没有太多的连接。我们许多人都是孤独的,住在狭小的空间里。我们缺乏习惯了的那种娱乐,和所依赖的正常生活。但一些最著名的自画像却是由于缺乏资源才出现。伦勃朗在很大程度上是他自己的模特,因为他雇不起专业模特。弗里达•卡罗身体不适躺在床上时,就开始画自己,而她所能看到的就只有一面镜子。


When Vincent Van Gogh found himself without models, he looked to himself: “If I can manage to paint the coloring of my own head,” he wrote to his brother, “which is not to be done without some difficulty, I shall likewise be able to paint the heads of other good souls, men and women.”

当文森特•凡•高发现自己没法雇模特时,他自言自语地说:“如果我能把自己脑袋的颜色画出来的话,”他对兄弟说,“当然这不是一件容易的事,但如果成功,我也能把其他人脑袋的颜色画出来,不管是男人还是女人。”


The nude human form as a subject of art dates back tens of thousands of years to explicit cave carvings and a woolly mammoth tusk-ivory sculpture: Though headless and small enough to wear as a pendant, the “Venus of Hohle Fels” has huge, gravity-defying breasts and some semblance of a vagina. She might be 40,000 years old. But nude self-portraiture, especially of women by women wresting free from the male gaze to play both artist and muse, didn’t become popular until the beginning of the 20th century.

裸体作为艺术主题可以追溯到数万年前的洞穴雕刻和毛茸茸的猛犸象象牙雕塑:虽然没有头,器型也小到可以作为吊坠,但“菲尔洞维纳斯”有巨大、坚挺的乳房和形似阴道的部位。她可能已经四万岁了。但裸体自画像,尤其是由女性画家描绘女性模特的情况,直到20世纪初才流行起来。这类自画像是女性从男性凝视当中挣脱出来,同时扮演艺术家和缪斯的体现。

裸照即艺术

The “Venus of Hohle Fels,” discovered in a cave in Germany in 2008. 

“菲尔洞维纳斯”,2008年发现于德国的一个洞穴。


“Albrecht Durer did do one fully nude self-portrait around 1503,” Abigail Susik, associate professor of art history at Willamette University, told me, “but this was probably because he lacked a model.” We all know some of the iconic 20th-century images of the scantily clad, including Frida Kahlo’s tragic painting “The Broken Column” and the photograph of 22-year-old Diane Arbus in her underwear, head cocked as she watches her own reflection.

威拉姆特大学艺术史副教授阿比盖尔•苏西克对我说:“阿尔布雷希特•丢勒在1503年的时候确实给自己画了一幅裸体自画像,但这可能是因为他没有模特。”我们都知道20世纪一些很有代表性的画像人物衣着很少,包括弗里达•卡罗具有悲剧感染力的《破碎的柱子》和22岁的戴安•阿勃丝穿着内衣的照片。照片里她看着镜子里的自己,歪着头。

裸照即艺术

Frida Kahlo painted “The Broken Column” in 1944 after she had spinal surgery.

弗里达•卡罗脊椎受伤后,1944年画了这幅《破碎的柱子》。


Dr. Susik also mentions the photographer Hannah Wilke, who made a career of (often nude) self-portraiture straight through to her final harrowing exhibition “Intra-Venus,” photographs of her face and body ravaged by the lymphoma that would kill her. Drawn with crayons, “Self-Portrait Facing Death” is Picasso’s analogous end-of-life work. “Six Self Portraits” is Andy Warhol’s.

苏西克博士还提到摄影师汉娜•威尔克。她的职业生涯一直是(通常是裸体)自画像,而她留给世界的最后一次展览是《走向维纳斯》,这组使人感到痛苦的照片上,她的脸部和身体布满威胁生命的淋巴瘤。毕加索为生命终结准备的作品是《面对死亡的自画像》,他用蜡笔写下题名。安迪•沃霍尔则留下了《六幅自画像》。


Many artists, not just painters and photographers, leave a final selfie as a sort of last will and testament: Sylvia Plath published her autobiographical novel “The Bell Jar” shortly before ending her own life. While the poet Agha Shahid Ali was dying, he wrote these haunting lines: “And I, Shahid, only am escaped to tell thee / God sobs in my arms.” David Bowie’s last song, “Lazarus,” begins, “Look up here, I’m in heaven.” In “Riding With Death,” one of Jean-Michel Basquiat’s last paintings before his fatal drug overdose, a naked brown-skinned man rides a skeleton like a horse.

许多艺术家,不仅仅是画家和摄影家, 都留下“最后一幅自画像”作为最后的遗志和遗嘱,:西尔维娅•普拉斯在自杀前不久出版了她的自传小说《钟声》。诗人阿迦•沙希德•阿里临终时,写下了这样一句令人难忘的话:“我沙希德,我只是逃出来告诉你/上帝在我怀里哭泣。”大卫•鲍伊的最后一首歌《Lazarus》开始便唱道,“看这里,我在天堂。” 让•米歇尔•巴斯奎特在因服药过量致死前的最后一幅画《与死亡同行》中,一个赤裸的棕色皮肤的人一样骑着一具骷髅,看起来像一匹马。

裸照即艺术

Pablo Picasso’s “Self Portrait Facing Death,” 1972.  

毕加索《死亡自画像》,1972年。


Though it might require a bit of squinting to see pandemic-era nude selfie-snapping on a par with Basquiat, geniuses hold no monopoly on the instinct to self-preserve. Or on the yearning to be witnessed.

将新冠肺炎疫情下的裸照与巴斯基亚特的作品相提并论或许不那么好理解,但并非天才才拥有自我保护的本能,并渴望被看到。


Sending a nude selfie is a request to be witnessed — not objectively, but through rose-tinted (or smooth-filtered) lenses. “When I choose to be seen in this way,” Kat said, “I’m taking an empowered action to receive what we all desire, and what we desire even more now in Covid times: a witness to our own vulnerability, our most private truth.”

发送一张裸体自拍是一种希望被看到的要求,这个过程不是物理的,而是通过玫瑰色的(或光滑的)镜片来完成的。凯特说:“当我选择以这种方式被人看到时,我是在采取一项经过赋权的行为来接受我们所有人想要的东西,在当下的疫情时期我们对它的渴望则更甚:它见证了我们的自身脆弱性,和我们最私密的真相。”


In “The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form,” Kenneth Clark distinguishes “nude” from “naked,” the latter implying an unwanted lack of clothing: “The word ‘nude,’ on the other hand,” he writes, “carries, in educated usage, no uncomfortable overtone. The vague image it projects into the mind is not of a huddled and defenseless body, but of a balanced, prosperous, and confident body: the body re-formed.”

在《裸体:对理想形式的研究》一书中,肯尼斯•克拉克将裸体和“赤裸裸”区别开来,后者暗示着要求我们褪去身上的衣服:“而‘裸体’这个词,”他写道,“在知识语言使用中,不会让人感到不舒服。它给人的印象模糊不清,并不是一具蜷成一团的身体,而是一个平衡、成功和自信的身体:被重塑过的身体。”

裸照即艺术

“Woman Combing Her Hair” by Wladyslaw Slewinski, 1897.

瓦迪斯瓦夫•斯莱温斯基《梳头发的女人》,1897年。


In these disorienting times, we are psychologically naked, but our nudes are aspirational: We are breasts propped on pillows and Facetuned. We are headless, proof that we’re not overthinking or panicking. We are free, cast in a single ray of sunlight, not stuck inside with a vitamin D deficiency. We are taking a risk at a time when we are not allowed to take risks, baring our bodies with no guaranteed reaction. We hit send and hold our breaths, silently asking until we receive the reply, am I safe am I safe am I safe?

在这些不寻常的时期,我们在心理上是赤裸裸的,但我们的裸体是激动人心的:此时,我们将乳房靠在枕头上,调整面部。我们毫无头绪,这证明我们没有过度思考或恐慌。我们是自由的,沐浴在一缕阳光中,不会因为光照不足而缺乏维他命D。我们在不能冒险的时候,选择去冒险,展示自己的身体,却不知对方会如何回复。我们按下发送键,屏住呼吸,直到收到回复之前,都在忐忑默问:我安全吗?我安全吗?我安全吗?





裸照即艺术

  • 本文原载于 The New York Times

  • 原文链接:https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/24/opinion/sunday/covid-nude-selfies.html?action=click&module=Opinion&pgtype=Homepage



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