Skip to content

凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂

凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂



我们翻译这篇文章的理由


由批判记忆和家园的复制与重建,阐明生者与逝者之间的相互归属。作者似在质问我们应该如何看待在现代文学和科技语境下模拟重建的现实意义。其实,家园无法重现,记忆终究留在了过去,但只要灵魂属于彼此,纵使流浪,我们也能在失落的世界上诗意地栖居。

——王禹琦&马佳宁


👇


凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂


作者: Anne Michaels

译者:马佳宁

校对:王禹琦&刘小康

策划:王禹琦&陈晓雪

推荐阅读:王雅婧


Mortal soul, moral soul

凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂

What happens when private grief becomes common experience?

当私人悲伤被刻上集体烙印,会发生什么?


There is no language chaste enough for the death of one we love. We ache to keep alive not only a life shared but also the totality of our loved one’s inner life—how they thought, how they listened, what was at stake—and not only our sense of this inner life but the countless ways they belonged to their time and place. And for generations dominated by war and, increasingly, in this world of dislocation and dispossession, where so many do not die in the place where they were born—to honor the complexity and meaning of their exile.
没有一种语言足以忠实地描述挚爱离世时我们内心的悲恸。我们渴望的,不只是共度的时光能够鲜活依旧,还有他们的内心世界可以完整永驻——他们的所思、所闻与所困;我们不愿失去感知所爱之人喜怒哀乐的权利,更无法接受他们曾在时空中存在的无数证明就此烟消云散。而对于饱经战乱的一代人而言,他们不得不抛弃身份,目睹家园像树一样被连根拔起,当客死他乡成为家常便饭,不能忘记的,是流离失所背后的挣扎与意义。

History makes us fear for our moral soul. There is nothing a man will not do to another, nothing a man will not do for another. We must personalize what history depersonalizes. What does it mean when one’s most private, most profound experience, the cataclysm that shapes one’s life, is also the most intimate experience of thousands of others—battle, siege, ghetto, refugee camp? What place can be found for our private grief when set against the losses of entire nations? Labor migration, political exile, climate exile, mass dispossession of every kind. Where do we belong? Where we are born or where we are buried, where our children are born, where we are abandoned, where we are wounded, where we are rescued. Where love finds us.
历史让我们忧惧自己的道德灵魂。人会对他人无所不为,也会为他人无所不为。千万个体的记忆碎片散落在历史长河,却被刻上集体化的烙印,我们怎能无动于衷?本以为刻骨铭心的创伤与苦难贯穿的是独一无二的一生——战争中飘零、围困中求生、寄生于贫民窟、辗转于难民营,竟也是万千其他人内心最深处的不愈伤痕——这究竟意味着什么?面对整个国家的沦亡,私人的悲痛又能安放何处?劳动移民,政治流亡,气候难民,当身份被剥夺,我们的灵魂归宿又在何地?是我们的出生之地或埋葬之所,是我们孩子的降生之处,是我们被抛弃的地方,是我们受伤的地方,是我们得救的地方。是爱与我们重逢的地方。

During the First World War, soldiers learned to keep a Bible in the breast pocket of their uniform. Not for solace but because it was a book thick enough to stop a bullet. Perhaps, after all, a kind of solace.
第一次世界大战期间,士兵们学会了在制服前胸的口袋里放上一本《圣经》。这并非出于一种信仰的慰藉,而仅仅是因为《圣经》足够厚,厚得足以挡住一颗致命的子弹。或许这终究也只是一种心理安慰罢了。

Stories told on a battlefield, on a life raft, in a hospital ward at night. In a café that will disappear before morning. Someone overhears. Someone listens, attentive with all his heart. No one listens. The story told to one who is slipping into sleep, or into unconsciousness, never to wake. The story told to one who survives, who in turn will tell that story to a child who will write it down, to be read by a woman in the middle of the night, hooked to a dialysis machine in a hospital fifteen thousand miles away, who will recognize something essential in herself.
战争的记忆一路诉说,从硝烟弥漫的战场到漂流的救生筏,再到夜晚寂静的病房。然而在黎明前就会消散的咖啡馆里,或许会有人偷听,或许会有人全神贯注地聆听,也或许他们全都兴致寥寥。它属于意识模糊的弥留之人,伴随他们陷入永眠;它属于幸存之人,成为讲给孩子听的“过去的故事”。而它被孩子记录下来,在一个深夜与一位千里之外的女性相遇;尽管此时,她依靠透析维系生存,却突然重拾了一度珍藏的独家记忆。

We are able to find everything in our memory, which is like a dispensary or chemical laboratory in which chance steers our hand sometimes to a soothing drug and sometimes to a dangerous poison.
Marcel Proust, 1922
“我们在记忆中找到的东西是形形色色,纷繁复杂的。记忆就如药房和化学实验室,有时候我们侥幸将手放入一瓶镇静药水中,有时无意中放入了危险的有毒药水。”
——《追忆似水年华》马塞尔·普鲁斯特
 
Anything one is remembering is a repetition, but existing as a human being that is being, listening, and hearing is never repetition.
Gertrude Stein, 1935
一个人记忆中的任何事都是重复,但作为人类栖息于世,侧耳细听这个世界,我们的存在绝非重复。
——格特鲁德·斯泰因
 
Memory is the only afterlife I can understand.
Lisel Mueller, 1996
记忆,是我唯一能够理解的来生。
——丽泽·穆勒

Sunday evening, winter morning, April dusk. Waking in a room so dark with rain we thought it was night. Grief, loss, regret are not the end of the story. They are the middle of the story. Memory does not look backward, it looks forward.
周日的傍晚,冬季的清晨,四月的黄昏,无论身处何时,却都仿佛是在漆黑的房间里被雨声唤醒,置身于无边无际的黑暗。记忆带来的悲恸、遗失和懊悔不是故事的结局,而是幕间;只因记忆无法回首,而在于向前看。

In 1944, in Warsaw, German soldiers scrawled numbers on the buildings in white paint and then systematically demolished the city, while the Soviet army watched and waited across the Vistula. After the war, the Poles returned to Warsaw and, living in the rubble, began to rebuild. Devastated cities across Europe faced the same choices. Should the ruins be left in view, like the cathedral at Coventry, with new buildings erected beside them, a permanent memorial? Should the rubble (with its dead) be hidden and a new, modern city built on top of it? Or perhaps, as the Poles decided, the old city should be replicated, rebuilt in the same place, in every last detail—every cornice, lamppost, and windowsill—an act of defiance and despair, the fiercest response to the fact that we can’t bring back the past, we can’t bring back the dead. In this replication was a kind of terror—the calling forth of spirits and the speaking aloud of a harrowing, unanswerable doubt: that the replica might erase precisely what it was meant to memorialize.
1944年,入侵华沙的德军用白色油漆潦草地在建筑物上标号,随后井然有序地摧毁了整座城市。而苏联军队就在维斯图拉河对岸坐视这一切的发生。战后,波兰人回到了华沙,开始重建这片他们赖以生活的破碎之地。整个欧洲境内,饱受蹂躏的城市面临着相同的抉择:是让废墟成为永恒的纪念,如考文垂大教堂那般在新楼雄起的原址茕茕孑立、供人瞻仰;还是掩埋这些破碎的(甚至是死去的)过往,在废墟之上建立一座全新的现代城市?抑或效仿波兰人的做法:将整座城市精准地复制一遍,每一处都进行重建,忠实于任何一处微小的细节,包括每个檐口、每根灯柱和每层窗台。这一充斥着绝望与反抗的悲壮之举,无比悲烈地回应了一个事实:往者不可谏,往事不可追。然而,这复刻中包裹着一种恐惧,是在叫魂中徒劳宣泄着可悲的忧虑:复制品或许恰恰泯灭了纪念的意义。

译注:考文垂大教堂是考文垂最著名的标志性建筑。修建于14世纪的原教堂在二战中被德国空袭所摧毁,只剩下外墙和尖顶。新的考文垂教堂开放于1962年,坐落在老教堂的遗址旁边。


In the 1950s, in Canada, during the building of the St. Lawrence Seaway, towns and villages on the floodplain along the St. Lawrence River were permanently evacuated. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario offered to move people’s houses to newly constructed towns, using the mighty Hartshorne House-Mover. Houses left behind were set afire. The commission also offered to move the bodies from the graveyards that would be flooded. Most people chose to respectfully leave the dead where they were. For decades after, people refused to swim in the river for fear of the dead rising into the water. The sidewalks and stone foundations of those towns can still be seen, floating ghostly below the surface of the river.
在20世纪50年代的加拿大,圣劳伦斯航道施工期间,坐落于圣劳伦斯河沿岸洪泛区的村镇被迫永久迁离。得力于强大的哈茨霍恩房屋搬运公司,安大略水电总局将民居搬迁到了新兴的城镇,并烧毁了剩余的旧屋。总局也表示,可以帮助民众迁移墓园里的遗体,以免洪水侵袭,但是大多数人选择让逝者长眠于原地以示尊重。然而之后的几十年里,人们惧怕尸体浮到水中,再也不敢在这游泳。而那些旧城镇的人行道和石头地基也依旧可见,如同鬼魂一般漂荡在河面之下。

In the 1960s, in Egypt and Sudan, during the building of the Aswan High Dam, almost the entire nation of Nubia was dispossessed and relocated, while the Nubian homeland disappeared under one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Countless archaeological sites were flooded. The colossal Abu Simbel temples were saved from floodwaters by a UNESCO initiative, the entire site dismantled, each stone block numbered and, ton by ton, transported two hundred feet higher, where the temples were reassembled and the surrounding landscape impeccably reproduced. This feat of engineering created an illusion, a deceit so perfect it was a betrayal; if one could be fooled into believing one stood on the original site, then Abu Simbel, reerected for a new purpose, was no longer sacred.
而在20世纪60年代的埃及与苏丹,阿斯旺大坝施工期间,整个努比亚地区几乎都被淹没,不得不易址。连同无数考古遗址在内,努比亚人的家乡由此沉入了世界上最大的人造湖之一。庞大的阿布辛贝神庙因为联合国教科文组织的倡议才幸免于难。整个神庙在原址上被分解拆除,每一块石砖都被标号,一吨一吨地被迁到高出河床水位200英尺(约60余米)的后山上重新组装,其周围的景致亦得到了完美重现。这一工程伟绩塑造的其实是一个错觉,如此的完美本质是一种背叛:如果它能愚弄人们相信这里就是原址,那么出于复制目的而再次矗立起来的阿布辛贝神庙就已神圣不再。

The Nubians would never be able to return to their homes, their land, their landscape, on the banks of the Nile. But more than this, their flooded homeland had vanished from the face of the earth. In other times and other places, people had lost their homeland while they slept, lying down in one country and waking in another, without even rolling over in their beds, borders redrawn and countries renamed in the night.
努比亚人再也无法重返尼罗河沿岸的故乡、故土与故景;更令人痛心的是,他们的家园已经从地球上湮灭。而在其他时代、其他地点,有的人在睡梦中就失去了家园。他们或许都没来得及在床上翻个身,一觉醒来却发现竟已身处异乡。一夜之间,国境被重新划定,国家也被重新命名。

What we carry when we are forced to leave everything behind is language, memory, our bodies. To consider how we remember privately and how we memorialize publicly, as a community or a country, to consider the difference between personal grief and historical grief, is to seek to understand history’s enduring deceptions, replication and renaming, the visible lie and the invisible truth, the visible truth and the invisible lie. Memory haunts the ruins of history, seeking meaning.
当我们被迫抛弃一切,语言、记忆与躯体依旧会伴我们同行。作为群体或国家,我们不仅思考如何既拥有属于个人的独家回忆,也拥有属于集体的公共纪念;我们还会思考如何辨别个体悲伤与历史遗恨。这就是在试图厘清历史上经久不衰的欺骗、复制与更名,去辨识错综复杂、扑朔迷离的谎言或者真相。因为记忆会久久萦绕在历史的废墟之中,不断追寻它的意义。

Literature carries the living and the dead. It binds to love, to profound transformation, it clings to places of shame, it pools in places of invisibility, regret, catastrophe; it clings to conscience. But art is not self-expression, it is the expression of what is beyond the self.
文学承载着生与死。文学坚守良知,以爱与蜕变为主题,无畏于羞耻伤疤,在无形中叙述着个人的遗憾,也记录了集体的灾难。但是,艺术不是自我表达,而是超越自我的表达。

Literature strives for something beyond grasp. A lesser work, which strives for less and achieves its lesser goal, is not alive in the same way—it manipulates and is derivative of experience rather than in confrontation with it; and without that engagement, where everything is at risk for both writer and reader, it is not generative. And this lesser art, like a simulacrum, will never be central to our desire. In a similar way, in the privileged places of the world, appetite can be seen as a substitute, a simulacrum of hunger.
文学超越形式,所追求的是不可捉摸之物。平庸的作品将就于模仿,无法如真正的文学一般鲜活灵动;它熟练地运用并模仿来自其他作品的经验,而非跳脱而出与之直面。然而,如果没有作品之间的碰撞,文学创作将失去生机,作者与读者也将岌岌可危。模仿之“艺术”在于制造产生错觉的假象,于我们真实的渴望终是毫无意义——好比在衣食无忧的世界里,用“食欲”取代“饥饿”又能如何?它的本质仍是“饥饿”。


How do we discern between what it original and what is simulated? The work of the simulator is more deplorable than the forger, who acknowledges the value of the original rather than erases it by imitation. That is why the cheap plastic flower, roughly produced, is more real than the sophisticated imitation that fools us into thinking it is real. The first does not pretend to be real, does not pretend to be what it is not, and consequently reminds us, ensures we remember, what is real. The entire intention of the second is to deceive us, to make us forget what is real. It seeks to replace what is real.

我们要如何区分原型与其模仿品呢?精致的赝品远比拙劣的仿品更令人愤慨,因为后者承认了原型的价值,而不是试图通过几近完美的复制来进行抹杀。这也是为什么,粗制滥造的便宜塑料花比起几乎以假乱真的高仿鲜花更显真实。前者并不想假装成真花,没有伪装成与自身不符的东西,等同于在提醒我们、确保我们记住什么才是真实。而后者纯粹意图欺骗我们,让我们忘记什么是真的,进而取代真实。

Reproduction consists of the old and new. The forger uses pigment and materials that date from the time of the original. Simulation consists only of the new. Warsaw was reconstructed using drawings, paintings, and other visual records, as well as a mix of original stonework and relocated stone. New trees grew where old trees had stood. Small changes were made to accommodate modern use, but visually the old city rose from its debris, a remarkable achievement of backbreaking labor and resolve, and a powerful statement addressing Soviet intentions.
仿品是旧与新的结合,所用的色素和材料往往来自于原作诞生的古老时代,赝品却完全由新事物组成。重建华沙时,人们借助了很多图纸、绘画和其他影像记录,所用的石材也是原有建筑的石造部分与新石料的混合,新木亦被植于旧林。为了适应现代生活而进行的些许微调,并不影响这座伤痕累累的城市从残垣断壁中痊愈归来。它是艰苦劳动与坚韧决心所带来的非凡成果,也是阐释苏联宏图的最强音。

In Warsaw the impulse to systematically replicate what was systematically destroyed was an act of confrontation with history, not refutation. As survivors entered the re-created streets, they were in direct confrontation with both the past and the future. Here was a place for both the dead and the living. The re-created city stood for democratic statehood—and even this symbol was both old and new, for now it was a statehood that had survived near obliteration.
在华沙,这种将过去被有序摧毁的一切通过严谨的复制来重现的念头,其实是在对抗历史,而不是驳斥历史。当幸存者们进入重建的街道,他们是在直接地与过去和未来同时对峙。这里祭奠死者,也歌颂生者。城市的重建象征着民主制独立国家的崛起。而这一象征也是带有过去色彩的新事物,因为现在它是一个从几近毁灭中幸存的独立国家。

Nothing enrages the tyrant more than hope. Inherent in reconstruction after the Second World War was not only the desire to remember the dead but also the hope that the dead would remember us. To assert that we had not lost our humanity, that we, and the world, after such depravity, might still be morally recognizable.
没有什么比希望更能激怒暴君。二战后重建的本质并不仅仅是为了缅怀逝者,而是希望逝者会铭记我们,是为了能够坚定地宣称,在如此不义且堕落的邪恶战争之后,我们依然没有丧失自身的人性;我们,和这个世界,都依旧拥有道德与道义。

Now, a little more than half a century later, we have created a technology that leaves no place for the dead. It is a realm of perpetual present, a realm of simulation, where the past is as fluid as the future. Deepfake, the technology that uses machine learning to create highly realistic false videos, can re-create its subject even posthumously. It can cause us to remember what never happened. No longer will we have any assurance that we are remembering the dead. And the dead will no longer remember us—we will have become unrecognizable.
半个多世纪后的今天,我们开发出了让逝者无法安息的技术。这是一个将现实永恒化的模拟领域;既定的过往在这里变得和未来一样捉摸不定。这项名为Deepfake(深度伪造)的技术使用机器学习来创作逼真的假视频,甚至为逝者重新定义人生。它可以让我们记住那些从未发生过的事。我们再也不敢确信自己确实把逝者铭记于心了,而逝者也再也无法记住我们,因为我们都会变得难以辨认。
 

译注:Deepfake, 一种人工智能基础的人物图像合成技术。它用于使用称为“生成对抗性网络”(GAN)的机器学习技术将现有图像和视频组合并叠加到源图像或视频上。


Erasure of figures from photographs—a favorite tactic of Stalin—now seems archaic in its reach and was primarily focused on the past. The deepfake can corrupt on a scale of such magnitude that its reach is timeless. It can falsify past, present, and future, creating and inferring events that will never occur, yet will hover in the air like a prophecy. Even a black hole becomes apparent by bending the proximate space. A deepfake, especially as technology continues to magnify its power, will continue to elude our perception and soon will leave no trace of its powers of distortion, though it will certainly contort the moral space around it. As always, the consequences of technology are a result not of the technology itself but of our laws and our will. Every deception erodes our will.
从照片中抹去人物曾是斯大林最热衷的策略,但这一策略也仅仅集中在过去,在今天早已不再适用。然而Deepfake的破坏力之大之广之深远可以无视时间的限制。它可以篡改过去、现在和未来,捏造然后推断出并不会发生的事件,甚至还能让它们像预言一般萦绕在我们脑中久久不能消散,如影随形;通过歪曲邻近的宇宙空间,即使是黑洞都变得显而易见。随着技术继续放大Deepfake的力量,它也将继续避开我们的认知范围,而且很快就能不留痕迹地运用这一使一切失真的能力,随之而来的则必然是周边道德环境的歪曲。技术带来的后果一如既往地并非源于技术本身,而是我们的法则与意志的结果。而每一次的欺骗都会削弱我们的意志。
 

There’s hope a great man’s memory may outlive his life half a year.

                                                                                    —William Shakespeare, 1600

也许一个大人物死了以后,他的记忆还可以保持半年之久。

——《哈姆雷特》威廉·莎士比亚

 

We are so constituted that we believe the most incredible things, and once they are engraved upon the memory, woe to him who would endeavor to erase them.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1774 

人生来就是这样,最最荒诞不经的事你也可以使他信以为真,并且立即记得牢牢的,谁要想重新把它推翻或者抹掉,谁就是在自找麻烦。

——《少年维特之烦恼》约翰·沃尔夫冈·冯·歌德

 

Memory is a complicated thing, a relative to truth but not its twin.

Barbara Kingsolver, 1990

记忆是个复杂的东西,它接近真相,却不是真相本身。 

——芭芭拉·金索沃尔

 
The deception of the deepfake requires hundreds of photographs of its subject and will require fewer as the technology improves. Perhaps we will revert to the handmade portrait to represent ourselves; perhaps, publicly, we will hide our faces.
Deepfake需要成千上百张对象的照片来实现欺诈。随着技术进步,它造假所需要的照片数量也会越来越少。也许我们会回到用手绘自画像来展示自我的时代;我们也许不得不在公开场合把脸挡上。

Recently a time capsule was embedded deep in the ice of Antarctica. The depth and location of the capsule were carefully calculated—as precisely as possible in the present state of our rapidly shifting climate. Inside were letters to the future. To write such a letter was a precipitous fall into space-time. Not to be opened for one thousand years. Even after one hundred years, the wisest and most conservative conjecture dissolves into fantasy. Writing into the future can only produce a form of memory.
最近,一颗时间胶囊被深植于南极洲的冰层中。胶囊的深度和位置都经过了精密的计算(至少在目前瞬息万变的气候条件下做到了尽可能的准确)。胶囊内是写给未来的信,然而这是一种贸然跃入时空的行为。这个胶囊1000年内都不会被开启,但即使只过了100年,最聪明、最保守的猜想也会变成幻想,给未来写信只是在制造另一种形式的记忆罢了。

In Antarctica a human voice—depending on air temperature, wind direction, the quality of the ice to refract sound—can be heard almost two miles away. There are few places of such silence on this earth. But there are other ways, if we have the desire and the will, to hear voices from a distance, even when that silence is gone. And it can still be found in our communion with literature, with art—a deep privacy that is simultaneously the voice of one mind, one soul, to another. There is no redemption in history. The dead remain where they are buried. But memory knows that the dead will float to the surface of the river. Memory knows the dead can read.
在南极洲,由于特殊的气温、风向以及冰面折射声波的特性,人的声音在几乎2英里(约3千米)外也能听到。地球上几乎没什么地方能像这里一样寂静。但如果我们有渴望也有意志,即使没有这片宁静,我们也有其他办法能听到远方的呼声。而这在我们与文学和艺术的思想交融中依旧有所体现——它既是思想的触碰,又是灵魂的沟通。历史中并不存在救赎。逝者在埋葬之地长眠。但是记忆知道,逝者会自河面浮现;记忆知道,逝者终将生者辨认。

In your hands, my hunger.
纵使记忆飘零,我们依旧属于彼此;纵使家园不再,我们依旧栖居于此。


👇



参考阅读:

废墟是毁灭,是葬送,是诀别,是选择。时间的力量,理应在大地上留下痕迹;岁月的巨轮,理应在车道间辗碎凹凸。没有废墟就无所谓昨天,没有昨天就无所谓今天和明天。废墟是课本,让我们把一门地理读成历史;废墟是过程,人生就是从旧的废墟出发,走向新的废墟。营造之初就想到它今后的凋零,因此废墟是归宿;更新的营造以废墟为基地,因此废墟是起点。废墟是进化的长链。


——《废墟》(收录于《文化苦旅》), 余秋雨

https://book.douban.com/subject/19940743/


《漂泊手记》是加拿大诗人安妮所写的记录二战后犹太人寻找精神家园的诗化小说,作者聚焦大屠杀对人类心灵的深远影响,想象难民们如何在多伦多的安全空间里重组过去,开始新的生活。


——《漂泊手记》,安妮·麦珂尔丝

https://book.douban.com/subject/1085526/


《英国病人》提供了对战争废墟中的社会一种全新的构想方式,迈克尔•翁达杰用优美而抒情的笔触,描绘了二次世界大战末期,意大利一栋废弃别墅里,四个伤心人的因缘际会。他们生活在世外桃源一般的风景中,却无法享受战争结束带来的和平与安宁。


——《英国病人》,迈克尔•翁达杰

https://book.douban.com/subject/10583075/


凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂

                                

  • 本文原载于 Lapham’s Quarterly

  • 原文链接:

    https://www.laphamsquarterly.org/memory/mortal-soul-moral-soul


一、了解取经号 | 我们是谁,在做什么,如何加入
二、学习贴士 | 如何打印输出PDF如何使用微信读书订阅取经号
三、翻译服务 | 咨询邮箱:[email protected]
四、社交媒体 | 微信公众号:取经号;微博:取经号JTW
五、译文归档 | 访问网站:qujinghao.com
六、学习社群 | 翻译社(暂停中)

凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂

添加伍豪微信,防止走丢


凡人的灵魂,道德的灵魂


Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注