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苏格拉底的整理秘诀

苏格拉底的整理秘诀

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

从“麻理惠的整理秘诀”到“苏格拉底的整理秘诀”,简单的方法帮助我们理清了生活空间与思维空间,在人们更倾向于积累、拥有的今天,展示了清理与舍弃的价值。

——王宇琪

👇

和苏格拉底一起收拾屋子

作者:Freya Mobus

译者:邓小雪 &李蕾

校对:郭嘉宁

策划:金殊羽

Tidying Up With Socrates

和苏格拉底一起收拾屋子

Freya Mobuscompares Socrates’ method of enquiry with a fashionable way to achieve domestic harmony.
弗雷亚·莫布斯(Freya Mobus)将苏格拉底问询法与一种实现家务和谐的流行方法进行比较

Let me present to you the ultimate life-coaching team: Marie Kondo and Socrates. Marie Kondo, the modern Japanese consultant devoted to uncluttering our households; Socrates, the ancient Greek philosopher devoted to uncluttering our minds. If we open ourselves to their methods of tidying up, we will live a happier life, they promise.
让我为您介绍一个终极生活指导团队:近藤麻理惠和苏格拉底。近藤麻理惠是致力于整理家务的当代日本收纳专家;苏格拉底是致力于整理人们思想的古希腊哲学家。如果我们接受他们的整理方法,他们则保证我们会生活得更快乐。

Kondo’s ‘KonMari’ method, presented in her Netflix show based on her bestsellerThe Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up(2014), and Socrates’ ‘Elenchus’ method, presented in Plato’s dialogues starring him, work in similar ways, although Kondo is much more popular with her clients. (Eventually, the Athenians got so sick of Socrates’ attempts at tidying up their minds that they executed him.)
近藤在畅销书《改变人生的收纳魔法》中介绍了她的“麻理惠收纳法”,并上了Netflix的真人秀;苏格拉底在柏拉图对话中展示的“反诘法”也用了相似的方式。只不过麻理惠在客户中更受欢迎(而苏格拉底则因为雅典人受够了被他“整理思维”而最终被处死了)。

Let’s take as our life-coaching client a character from Plato’sRepublic– Thrasymachus, who claims that only weak simpletons believe that being moral is good. Let’s assume that in addition to his cluttered mind, Thrasymachus also has a cluttered home – for he who is untidy in one area of life is likely to be untidy in another. Our life-coaching team of Kondo/Socrates gets to work.
让我们把寻求生活指导的客户当成柏拉图《理想国》中的一个角色——司拉西马库斯(Thrasymachus),他的观点是只有没用的笨蛋才会觉得行事道德是好的。让我们假设他除了思维混乱之外,家里也凌乱不堪——因为既然他不会整理生活中的一个方面,那么另一方面也不会太好。我们的“近藤+苏格拉底”的生活指导团队要开始工作了。

First, let’s tidy up Thrasymachus’ house according to the KonMari method. Focus on one category; for example, clothes: get all your clothes together and take stock. Seeing the big pile of togas, tunics, and sandals, Thrasymachus realizes that he has too many. But which items should he get rid of? Marie Kondo’s advice: pick something you feel strongly about – something you definitely do (or do not) want to keep, and move on from there. Go through each item one by one and ask yourself: does this item make me happy? If not, get rid of it. Only keep things that ‘spark joy’. When you’re done, store your clothes in such a way that you can remember where they are and access them more easily in the future (fold them nicely and store them in designated boxes).
首先,让我们根据“麻理惠收纳法”来收拾司拉西马库斯的家。先集中收拾某一个类别,比如衣物:把所有的衣物都拿出来进行清点。看着堆成山的宽袍、套头衫和拖鞋,司拉西马库斯明白自己的东西太多了。但是他应该扔掉哪些呢?近藤麻理惠的建议是:选出那些能明确决定是留是扔的物品,然后继续逐一检查剩下的每件物品并问自己:这个东西能让我快乐吗?如果不能,就扔掉,只保留那些能够让自己“怦然心动”的。等做完这些,你就要把衣物收好,放在你能记得住并在将来能够方便取用的地方(整齐地叠好放在特定的盒子里)。

Now let’s tidy up Thrasymachus’ mind according to Socrates’Elenchusmethod. Focus on one question; for example, ‘What is morality?’ Next, get all your beliefs about morality out into the open. Once Thrasymachus has taken stock of his beliefs, he realizes that some of them are incompatible. For instance, he believes that when I act morally, I benefit someone else; and he also believes that when I act morally, I may not benefit someone else. So he has to get rid of some beliefs. But which ones? Socrates’ advice: pick a belief you feel very strongly about – one you can defend best – and hold on to that. Then go through each belief one by one and ask yourself: why do I hold this belief? Only hold on to beliefs you can defend. When you’re done, store your beliefs in such a way that you can access them more easily in the future. You can do this by, for example, connecting each belief with an explanation or reason for why you hold it, and so build a network of beliefs. As Socrates says, ‘Tie your beliefs down’.
现在让我们以苏格拉底的反诘法来梳理司拉西马库斯的思想。先专心想一个问题,例如“道德究竟是什么?”接下来,摊出你所有关于道德的看法。一旦司拉西马库斯开始检视自己的信念,他就会意识到其中有一些是互相矛盾的。比如说,他坚信当我遵循道德行事的时候,我就会造福他人,但他同时也觉得这样可能不会有益于他人,所以他需要摆脱一些想法。但是摆脱哪些呢?苏格拉底的建议是:挑选出你有明确想法的信念——一个你最能为之辩护的信念——并对它坚守不渝。一个接一个地审视你秉持的每一个信念并且扪心自问:我为什么会相信它?只去坚守那些你能够捍卫的想法。梳理完之后,将它们恰当地储存起来,以便日后读取。比如说,你可以将你的每个信念和秉持它的理由连接起来,从而建立起信念的网络。正如苏格拉底所说,“拴住你的信念。”

Kondo’s KonMari method and the SocraticElenchusboth inspire self-reflection. During the process of uncluttering, you are encouraged to envision your future self. Which items/beliefs do you want to bring into your future life? Who do you want to be? Their methods help us to become a better version of ourselves and to build a home – physical or intellectual – that makes us and the people around us happy.
近藤麻理惠的整理方法和苏格拉底的反诘法都旨在激发人的自我审视。在整理的过程中,他们都鼓励你去设想未来的自己。你希望与什么物品或信念一同走向未来?你想要成为谁?他们的方法帮助我们成为更好的自己,打造出一个为自己和身边人带来快乐的家,不论这个家是实体的,或是智力上的。

Clutter is often a source of tension. When you cannot find your belt in the morning and blame it on your spouse, your day starts with an argument. Similarly, a political debate about a controversial topic such as immigration is likely to turn hostile if the debaters have cluttered thinking about it and are unwilling to abandon any of their beliefs. It is not surprising that many of Marie Kondo’s clients have reported that their lives have become more harmonious after they KonMari’ed their homes. As for the harmonious effect of an uncluttered mind, just look at Socrates in his last hours before his execution: Plato describes him as unconcerned about his impending death. What kept Socrates at peace is precisely that he had let go of the belief that death is bad.
混乱常常是紧张的根源。当你因为早上起床找不到你的腰带而责怪你的伴侣时,你的一天就从一场争论开始了。同样,在进行一场话题颇有争议(例如移民)的政治辩论时,如果辩手思想混乱并且拒绝放弃任何想法,氛围就很容易充满敌意。很多近藤麻理惠的客户都反馈称,在按照她的方法整理好家后,不出所料,他们的生活也变得更加和谐。至于头脑清醒所给人带来的平和,只需要看一下苏格拉底在他行刑前几个小时的样子就够了:根据柏拉图的描述,苏格拉底对即将到来的死亡漠不关心。而让苏格拉底保持平静的根源就在于,他早已不再相信死亡是坏事了。

But, a skeptic might wonder, what about items or beliefs that I’ve inherited from someone dear to me? Shouldn’t I keep the scarf my grandma gave me for my birthday, even though it’s really not my style? Here, Marie Kondo’s advice is to give the present a chance. Wear the scarf at least once; but if it doesn’t spark joy, let go of it. Socrates is likely to agree. If your grandma used to tell you that eating bread and butter with every meal will give you extra energy and stamina, give it a shot. Treat this belief as a hypothesis; but if you can’t defend it, let it go. We can remember and cherish our loved ones without holding on to unwanted inherited items or beliefs.
但是,惯于怀疑的人可能会疑惑,那些从我最亲近的人身上继承的物品或者想法应该怎么办?我奶奶在生日时送给我的围巾,即使它不是我的风格,难道我不该把它留下来吗?在此,近藤麻理惠的建议是,现在去尝试一次。至少带一次这条围巾。但是如果它不能让你快乐,那么就放弃它。苏格拉底大概也会表示同意。如果你的奶奶曾经告诉你,每一餐都要吃面包和黄油,这会给你带来额外的能量和耐力,那么就试一下。把这个想法当作一个假设,但是如果你无法捍卫它,就抛弃它。即使没有那些继承下来的东西或者信念,我们一样可以记住并且珍惜我们所爱之人。

Our life-coaching dream team Kondo/Socrates leave Thrasymachus with one more piece of advice for the future: tidy regularly! Get into a habit of examining both your beliefs and possessions. That way, you will live a happier, more harmonious life.
作为我们的人生指导最佳阵容,近藤麻理惠/苏格拉底还给司拉西马库斯提了一条建议:定期整理!养成审视自己信念和财产的习惯。长此以往,你会拥有一个更加快乐和谐的生活。

苏格拉底的整理秘诀

  • 本文原载于Philosophy Now

  • 原文链接:https://philosophynow.org/issues/133/Tidying_Up_With_Socrates

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苏格拉底的整理秘诀

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