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回不去的故乡

回不去的故乡

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

伴随战争总会出现一些特有名词,比如“猪仔”,比如“眷村”,又比如“Zainichi”——在日本殖民朝韩半岛时期被征来做工、战后继续侨居日本的高丽人。他们离开时,来不及与亲人说一声再见。盼到战争结束时,半岛却已一分为二,再也不是他们熟悉的故乡。那些最终决定留在异乡的Zainichi,心灵却从未得到过安息。回不去的都叫做家乡。对于这些韩朝移民的后裔而言,哪里才是返乡路?

——海灵

?

全世界都在疏离日本,除了在日朝鲜人

作者:Motoko Rich

译者:李静轩&邹世昌

校对:邵海灵

策划:王津雨

Koreans in Japan Embrace the North as the World Shuns It

全世界都在疏离日本,除了在日朝鲜人

TOKYO — Every time Jiro Oshima wants to see his siblings, he must travel to North Korea.
东京——每次大岛次郎想要看望自己的兄弟姐妹时,都得动身前往朝鲜。
Mr. Oshima, 79, a retired schoolteacher in Japan, takes a flight to Beijing, then another to Pyongyang, carrying small gifts like candy and underwear, and items that his siblings can sell: baby clothes, medicine, shoes.
大岛先生今年79岁,现居日本,是一名退休教师。每次去看望兄弟姐妹时,他要先飞往北京,再从北京飞往平壤。他会带着糖果和内裤等小礼物,也会带着兄弟姐妹能够售卖的物品,如婴儿衣服、药物和鞋子。
He has made the journey more than a dozen times since the 1960s, when his parents and siblings moved to the Communist nation as part of a repatriation program that the world has largely forgotten.
20世纪60年代,他的父母和兄弟姐妹参加了一项几乎已被世人遗忘遣返计划,从日本迁到了朝鲜。从那以后,居住在日本的大岛先生飞往朝鲜看望亲人已有十几次了。
Now, as President Trump and North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, prepare for a second summit meeting, to be held in Vietnam this week, there is nervous anticipation that a political thaw could ease the North out of its long isolation. Perhaps nowhere is that hope stronger than among ethnic Koreans like Mr. Oshima in Japan — a community that embraced North Korea as the rest of the world cut it off.
如今,美国总统特朗普和朝鲜领导人金正恩的第二次首脑会议将于本周在越南举行,人们既焦虑又期待,希望这场会议能够解冻美朝政治关系,从而缓解朝鲜长期与世隔离的现状。也许,没有谁比移民日本的高丽族裔更期待这种转变了。在世界各国都忙着与朝鲜划清界限时,他们却向朝鲜伸出了双臂。
An estimated 322,000 ethnic Koreans in Japan are members of families that arrived during Tokyo’s 35-year colonial occupation of Korea. Known as the Zainichi, most trace their roots to what is now South Korea.
据估计,在日本约有32.2万高丽族裔是在东京殖民韩朝半岛的35年中移居日本的。他们被称为日本高丽人,大多数人的老家是现在的韩国。
The Oshimas’ story is typical. Like thousands of other families, they were caught in a cul-de-sac of history, uprooted by the Second World War only to be split apart and stranded by the Cold War.
大岛先生就是其中一员。像其他千万高丽族人的家庭一样,他们被逼近了历史的死胡同,二战使他们背井离乡,而冷战又将他们紧紧捆住,动弹不得。
“For as long as I can remember, it has been the dream of the Zainichi people to see the North and South reunified,” Mr. Oshima said recently. “If only this could have happened a little earlier,” he added, inhaling sharply to suppress his emotions.
大岛先生最近说:“打我记事起,日本高丽人就希望朝鲜和韩国再次统一。”他补充道:“如果能够快点统一就好了。”他深吸一口气,努力压抑着自己的情绪。

回不去的故乡

Photographs of Mr. Oshima visiting North Korea, right, and with his older brother as children in Japan, left.CreditAndrea DiCenzo for The New York Times
大岛先生在朝鲜的照片,左。儿时的大岛先生与哥哥在日本的照片。
Close to two million Koreans came to Japan looking for work or were taken hereas forced laborbefore and during World War II. Most returned after Japan’s surrender. But hundreds of thousands remained asthe Korean Peninsula was dividedinto two nations and, a few years later, as it descended into the Korean War.
二战前及二战期间,将近2百万高丽人来到日本,或是来日本寻找工作,或是被当做强制劳动力押送到日本。日本投降后,大部分高丽人回到了家乡。但因为朝鲜半岛分裂成了两个国家,几年后又爆发了朝鲜战争,所以数十万高丽人滞留在了日本。
Beginning in the late 1950s, Japan offered to help repatriate the Zainichi, many of whom were attracted to North Korea’s socialist promises and an economy then larger than the South’s. Nearly 100,000 people moved, including Mr. Oshima’s parents and siblings.
20世纪50年代开始,日本开始协助遣返这些高丽人。他们中的很多人都被朝鲜的社会主义前景和当时超越韩国的经济所吸引。近10万人迁居朝鲜,包括大岛先生的父母和兄弟姐妹。
Mr. Oshima, 20 at the time, had intended to follow them, and was just waiting for word from his family.
想跟着家人一起走的大岛先生当时20岁,留在日本等待家人的消息。
To circumvent censors, they used code. If they wrote in vertical script, as is typical in Japanese, it meant Mr. Oshima should join them. But if the writing was horizontal, that would be a warning to stay away.
为了躲过审查,他们对了暗号。如果家人像日本人一样竖着写信,这就表明大岛先生应该离开日本去朝鲜。如果是横着写信,就意味着不要去。
When the first letters arrived, the words marched across the page, left to right.
在收到的第一封信中,字是以从左到右的顺序横向排列的。
‘Big Island’
“大岛”
Mr. Oshima’s parents set sail from a village in southeastern Korea in 1934, searching for work as Japan’s war machine was warming up.
1934年,日本正在酝酿战争。为了维持生计,大岛先生的父母从朝鲜半岛东南部的一个小村庄乘船来到了日本。
They settled in a small town in southern Japan and raised five children. Mr. Oshima’s father supported them by chopping wood and selling charcoal. To disguise their heritage, they adopted a Japanese surname, which meant “big island.”
他们在日本南部的一个小镇安顿下来,生育了五个孩子。大岛先生的父亲通过伐木和卖炭来养家糊口。为了隐藏自己的身份,他们改换了日本姓“大岛”。
Mr. Oshima recalled that classmates taunted them, asking, “Are Koreans actually human beings?”
大岛先生犹记着上学时同学们的嘲笑:“高丽人还算是人吗?”
Discrimination was baked into the laws, which made it difficult for Zainichi to become citizens. Mr. Oshima hoped to study engineering but was barred from a specialized high school and ended up teaching at a Korean school.
对于日本高丽人的歧视已经写到了法律里,这让这些高丽族人及其后裔很难成为日本公民。大岛先生想要学习工程学,但是被一所专业高中拒收,最终只能在朝鲜学校里教书。
Most of his first pupils were from families preparing to move to the North.
当时,他教的第一批学生中,很多学生的家庭都准备迁居朝鲜。
At the time, in the late 1950s, Japanese officials were quietly working with Pyongyang on a repatriation program.
20世纪50年代末,日本政府与朝鲜政府秘密合作,开展了一场遣返行动。
“Their motives were economic and security concerns, enhanced by a large infusion of prejudice,” wroteTessa Morris-Suzuki, a historian who publisheda book on the exodus.“They hoped to rid the country of those they saw as subversive and a welfare burden.”
历史学家泰萨·莫里斯-铃木在其关于这次遣返的书中写道:“日本官员不仅出于经济和安全考虑,他们对在日高丽人日本韩裔还有着根深蒂固的偏见。他们觉得这些高丽族裔是破坏分子,是社会负担,想要摆脱他们。”
North Korea saw an opportunity to replenish its work force after the devastation of the Korean War. But the South, governed by a military dictatorship at the time, was worried that an influx of Zainichi might hurt its weak economy.
对于朝鲜来说,在结束了毁灭性的朝鲜战争后,接收在日高丽人可以补充其国内的劳动力。但对于当时被军阀统治的韩国来说,在日高丽人的涌入可能会损害其本已疲软的经济。
Articles appeared in Japanese newspapers portraying the wonders of the North, where the authorities promised furnished apartments, jobs, rice and three months’ of coal to those who returned.
在日本,报纸上很多文章都在大肆宣扬朝鲜的光明前景。同时,朝鲜官方承诺,凡是归国的人,都能够住上装修过的公寓,找到工作,吃到大米,领到三个月的煤炭。
The United States quietly raised concerns that some Zainichi might be pressured into moving. But it did not object to the program, Ms. Morris-Suzuki wrote, because it wanted to protect its relationship with Japan.
莫里斯-铃木写道,当时美国质疑在日高丽人可能是被迫遣返的,但因为美国想要维持与日本的关系,所以并没有公开反对这项行动。
Among those who left Japan was a young girl who would one day become the mother of Kim Jong-un, the North’s current leader.
在这些被遣返的高丽人中,有一个年轻女孩,后来生下了金正恩:朝鲜的现任领导人。
Mr. Oshima’s family departed in 1960, boarding a ship from the port of Niigata on Japan’s west coast. They were going home, free at last from Japanese rule.
1960年,大岛先生的父母从日本西海岸的新泻坐船前往朝鲜。他们要回家。他们终于不用再受日本的压迫,他们自由了。
“We are Koreans,” Mr. Oshima recalled. “It’s about blood.”
大岛先生回忆道:“我们是高丽人。这是血浓于水的情结。”
He would never see his parents again.
从此,他再也没能与父母相见。
Care Packages and Cash
贴心的包裹和现金
Fifteen years passed before Mr. Oshima could travel to North Korea.
15年过去后,大岛才有机会前往朝鲜。
“The most heartbreaking part was knowing that he lived so far from his brother and sisters, and knowing how hard it was for him,” said his wife, Keiko, 75, sitting in their Tokyo apartment, where black-and-white portraits of Mr. Oshima’s parents hang in the living room.
坐在他们位于东京的公寓里,大岛70岁的妻子惠子回忆道:“最令人心碎的事情是,知道他与他的兄弟姐妹隔得如此之远,知道到这些年的日子对于他有多艰难。”公寓的客厅里,仍然挂着大岛父母的黑白照片。
During that time, he taught in Korean schools run by Chosen Soren, the main Zainichi community organization, which received funding from North Korea in the early years and portrayed the nation’s founder, Kim Il-sung, as a heroic fighter against Japan.
在那期间,他在朝日社开办的高丽学校任教。朝日社是在日高丽族团体的主要组织之一,早年曾接受过朝鲜的资助,并将朝鲜的开国元勋金日成描绘成一位抗击日本的英勇战士。
Since 1957, North Korea has spent about $452 million to help finance Korean schools in Japan, according to Oh Gyu-sang, of the Zainichi Korean History Research Institute in Tokyo. Even now, it continues to send small amounts, Mr. Oh said.
据位于东京的朝鲜历史研究所的工作人员吴奎现说,自1957年以来,朝鲜已经花费了大约4.52亿美元来资助在日本的高丽学校。即使是现在,它仍会继续给予小额款项的资助。
At a recent reception in its Tokyo headquarters, Chosen’s chairman, Ho Jong-man, stood under oversize portraits of Mr. Kim’s grandfather and father, and praised Mr. Kim’s “uncommon diplomatic strategy toward unification.”
在前不久于东京总部举行的一次招待会上,朝日社社长何钟万站在金正恩祖父和父亲的超大画像下,称赞金正恩“罕见的统一外交战略”。
Its schools, including a university, teach Korean language, history and culture alongside a Japanese curriculum. The Oshimas sent their three children to the schools, but Mr. Oshima grew disillusioned with their intense ideological allegiance to the North.
朝日社旗下的学校,包括一所大学,除了教授日语课程外,还教授朝鲜语、历史和文化课程。大岛夫妇把他们的三个孩子送进了学校,但学校严格奉行朝鲜意识形态,大岛对此大失所望。
“Worship of Kim Il-sung had already started,” he recalled. “I said, ‘I just don’t think he’s a god.’ ”
“对金日成的崇拜已经开始了,”他回忆道,“我说:‘我只是觉得他不是神。’”
Mr. Oshima said he did not initially visit his family in North Korea because Zainichi were not given re-entry permits by Japan until 1974. He made his first trip the next year. His mother had died eight months earlier, his father in 1970.
大岛说,他最初没有回访朝鲜的家人,是因为直到1974年,日本才向在日高丽人发放了护照。翌年是他第一次进入朝鲜。而他的母亲早在8个月前去世,父亲于1970年去世。
A government escort accompanied him everywhere, even sleeping in the same room when he visited his siblings. Mr. Oshima paid the man 10,000 yen, about $30 at the time, to leave him alone for a night with his relatives.
他去哪儿都有政府的陪同,甚至去看望兄弟姐妹时也要睡在同一个房间里。大岛付给这名男子1万日元(当时约合30美元),让他和亲戚们单独过夜。
North Korea let Mr. Oshima visit regularly after that first trip. But he declined to speak at length about his relatives or his travels to the country, which suffered a devastating famine in the 1990s and was squeezed by sanctions as it pursued nuclear weapons.
在首次前往朝鲜之后,朝鲜允许大岛定期回访。但他拒绝详细谈论他的亲戚和他的朝鲜之行。朝鲜在上世纪90年代遭受了毁灭性的饥荒,在发展核武器的过程中受到了制裁。
On some visits, Mr. Oshima helped organize humanitarian relief. Once, he worked with a group to arrange a shipment of 10 bags of rice, but saw only two on an aid flight. When he asked about the other eight, he recalled, “the official said, ‘This rice was given to us as a gift, and it is our decision what to do with it.’ ”
在几次去往朝鲜的途中,大岛帮助组织了人道主义救援。有一次,他和一群人一起安排装运了10袋大米,但在救援飞机上只看到了两袋。当他问起其他8袋大米的情况时,他回忆说:“这名官员说:‘这些大米是作为礼物送给我们的,怎么处理是我们的事。’”
Mr. Oshima also sends regular packages and cash to his relatives, though Japanese sanctions limit each transfer to 100,000 yen, or about $915, and prohibit the shipment of luxury goods like jeans and lipstick.
大岛还定期向亲属寄送包裹和现金,不过日本实行了制裁措施,每次转账限制在10万日元(约合915美元)以内,并且禁止运送奢侈品,比如牛仔裤和口红。
Experts estimate that Zainichi have sent billions of dollars over the decades to North Korea. But the flow has fallen sharply because of tighter sanctions enforcement and because younger Zainichi feel less connected to the North, said an intelligence official in Japan, who requested anonymity because he couldn’t speak publicly.
专家估计,在过去几十年里,在日高丽人向朝鲜提供了数十亿美元的援助。但日本的一名情报官员说,由于制裁的执行力度加大,再加上年轻的高丽移民后裔觉得自己与朝鲜的关联越来越少,所以流量急剧下降。由于无法公开发言,这名官员要求匿名。
Mr. Oshima made his last trip five years ago. He said he could never join his family, even in retirement. “I would not be able to make a life there,” he said.
大岛最后一次去朝鲜是在五年前。他说他永远不能和家人团聚,即使退休了也不行。“我无法在那里谋生。”他说。
Staying Korean
韩国之行
In 1996, Mr. Oshima visited the seaside village in South Korea where his parents had lived before emigrating to Japan. During the stay, he accompanied his father’s eldest brother to pay respects to their ancestors.
1996年,大岛去了他的父母在移居日本之前居住过的韩国海滨村庄。在此期间,他陪同他父亲的大哥去祭拜他们的祖先。
Wandering among the graves, Mr. Oshima stopped short: His name, in Korean, was carved into a headstone.
大岛在墓地间徘徊时,突然停了下来:一块墓碑上刻着他的韩语名字。
To his astonishment, he learned that his relatives had declared him dead because he taught at schools run by an organization that they considered an enemy of South Korea.
令他吃惊的是,他得知亲戚们之所以宣布他已死亡,是因为他们认为他教书的学校是由韩国的敌人开办的。
“My uncle never thought that I would visit,” Mr. Oshima said, tearing up. “He said not to take it personally.”
“我叔叔从没想过我会去拜访他,”大岛流着泪说,“他说不要往心里去。”
Despite that rejection, Mr. Oshima became a South Korean citizen in 2006.
尽管遭到了家族的弃绝,大岛还是在2006年成为了韩国公民。
With each generation, the family’s link to North Korea fades.
随着每一代人的成长,这个家庭与朝鲜的联系也逐渐消失了。
One granddaughter, Misa An, 22, visited the Oshimas recently and browsed his photos from North Korea. “Do they have cellphones?” she asked. “Do they go out to eat?”
22岁的孙女美沙最近拜访了大岛一家,并浏览了他在朝鲜拍的照片。“他们有手机吗?””她问,“他们出去吃饭吗?”
Ms. An said her grandfather never spoke much about the family’s history. But at a birthday celebration two years ago, she recalled, he talked about his parents, how they came to Japan and later left, and how he remained.
美沙说,她的祖父从来没有多谈过这个家族的历史。但她回忆说,在两年前的一次生日庆祝会上,他谈起了他的父母,他们是如何来到日本,后来又如何离开,以及他是如何留下来的。
“He decided to stay behind and live alone,” she said. “And because of that, we are now all here.”
“他决定留下来独自生活,”她说,“正因为如此,我们现在才能在这里。”

回不去的故乡

  • 本文原载于NewYork Times

  • 原文链接:https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/25/world/asia/korea-japan-diaspora.html

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回不去的故乡

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