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我没有在讲文学翻译

我没有在讲文学翻译

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

“翻译像写作一样也需要一个磨练的过程。我觉得这几年我翻译成熟了,主要是翻译步骤能够做到严密起来,例如反复的校对,而这是需要巨大耐性的,这巨大耐性不是随便能达到的。正因为如此,便发现认真严谨的译者是很少的,于是更感到有责任继续做,而且做得更多,尽管在香港替大陆出版社做翻译,稿费之低只够每天买半包烟,半年严肃翻译的报酬不及一周商业翻译的报酬。这意味着译得愈多就愈穷。而我真的愈来愈穷了,跟朋友吃饭时也不太敢跟他们争埋单了。我常常思考佛的一些简单事迹和形象,并发现一些深意。例如佛觉悟之前与觉悟之后的唯一差别,就是觉悟前他一切都是为自己,觉悟后一切都是为别人。我提到佛,是因为我这个领悟是先从翻译中初步获得的。有一天我觉得活着实在是很累的,不是说我贪图安逸,相反,安逸对我毫无吸引力。但我突然想到,既是这样,那么我何况就多做翻译,把下半生都用来服务别人。这样下了决定,便顿然轻松起来。

——黄灿然

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为什么翻该怎么读

作者:Chantal Wright

译者:宋 一

校对:刘 蕊

策划:唐 萧

Literary Translation
文学翻译
This book will not offer a history of translation, as this lies beyond its scope, but it will work towards an ethics and an analytic of translation by asking and offering answers to the following three questions, which will also function as chapter headings:
本书不会涉及到翻译历史,这不在本书的讨论范围之内。但是通过提出和回答如下三个问题(这三个问题也会作为各章节题目出现),本书会试图分析翻译,了解翻译的职业操守。
• Why do we translate?
我们为什么翻译?
• How do we read translations?
我们如何读翻译作品?
• How do translators read?
译者如何阅读?
Readers may wonder why the obvious and seemingly the most useful question, namely ‘How do translators translate?’, does not feature on this list. Translators translate on the basis of how they read, and how they read has much to do with why they translate, with their motivations for pursuing the practice of translation and with how they experience literature. If we are able to account for why translators translate and how they read, the ‘how’ of translation will emerge organically.
读者可能会疑惑,为什么最明显,看起来最有用的“译者如何翻译”不在其列?译者翻译,靠的是如何阅读,如何阅读又和为什么翻译挂钩,此外,还与他们追求翻译事业的动机以及他们如何感受文学有关。如果我们能回答译者“为什么翻译”和“如何阅读”,“如何翻译”这个问题也就迎刃而解了。
Before proceeding to outline the content of each of these three chapters, it is worth re-iterating that this book is about literary translation. My definition of a literary text is wide-ranging and encompasses fiction, poetry, children’s literature, life writing, philosophical writing and Freud’s psychoanalytic writings. (There is no discussion of dramatic texts for reasons which have to do with my own current areas of expertise as a translator and the nature of these texts as works intended for performance, an area that is beyond the scope of this book.) This understanding of the literary is clearly not confined to the fictional, and there is nothing unusual about this position .
在继续就各章内容展开概述之前,有必要重申,本书所讲的是文学翻译。我对文学翻译的定义很广,包括小说、诗歌、儿童文学、传记、哲学写作以及弗洛伊德的心理分析文章。(本书不会就戏剧文本进行讨论,因为作为译者,这和我现在的专业领域无关,此外,戏剧文本的创作目的倾向于表演,所以本书不作讨论。)很明显,对文学的这种理解不局限于虚构文体,这种立场没什么可大惊小怪的。
The quality of literariness is not dependent upon a lack of propositional or truth-bearing content. If this were the case then a text such as James Rebanks’ The Shepherd’s Life (2015), which is a blend of life and nature writing, would not be considered literary, and nor would most travel writing. Literariness has much to do with the style of a text, with its marked and distinct use of features such as voice, metaphor, ambiguity, repetition and defamiliarization, to give but a few examples.
文学性的高低,和内容是否真知灼见以及能否解疑释惑无关。如果按上述标准来看,詹姆斯·里班克斯(James Rebanks)2015年出版的半传记半自然写作《放牧人生》(The Shepherd’s Life)就不算是文学,大部分游记也同样不能算文学。文学性和文风有关,和如何独到且特别地使用对话、暗喻、歧义、重复和陌生化等表现手法有关。
With the cognitive turn in literary studies, literary texts are also increasingly being seen as ‘embodying a state of mind. This is not to say that non-literary texts are entirely without an individual style, nor that they do not embody a state of mind, but that these features are more prominent in literary texts. This is the understanding of the literary that guides my approach in this book.
随着文学研究逐渐转向认知层面,文学文本也日渐被看成是思维状态的体现。这并不是说非文学文本完全没有个人风格,或者不体现思维状态,而是这些特点在文学文本中更加突出。以上对文学的理解指导我撰写了本书。
In the first chapter, I will consider the issue of the ethics of translation by asking why we translate. It is possible to answer this question synchronically and diachronically, for our own time and place and for earlier epochs and traditions. I am primarily concerned with answering it for a contemporary setting, and my focus will be on the English-speaking world, broadly defined (mainly the UK, the US and Canada), in full awareness of the fact that this transnational entity has separate national and sub-national faces and concerns. I have adopted this transnational focus because English-language publishing is a transnational industry – literary translators produce work across national borders – and because academia in the English-speaking world is very much in cross-border dialogue, a fact reflected in the business of academic publishing. In broadly addressing and drawing on the experiences of the literary translation community in the UK and North America, it is not my intention to slight the Republic of Ireland, India, Australia, New Zealand or Anglophone countries in Africa and the Caribbean, all of which have their distinct (and post-colonial) Englishes, but rather to focus on those countries where I have spent extended periods of time living and working, and hence with which I am more familiar. The differing national contexts and global positions of the UK, the US and Canada have a significant effect on the why and the how of translation in each one. The UK is a member, albeit frequently a reluctant one, of the political and cultural unit known as the EU, which currently has 28 members and at least as many languages. The UK is a former colonial power and has been involved in several wars in the Middle East in the last few decades. The US is a global political and economic power, whose supremacy has been challenged of late by financial crisis and a changing world order; it has a history of involvement in the affairs of its Latin American neighbours and, like the UK, has been involved in conflict in the Middle East. The US is an immigrant country and is de facto bilingual (Spanish–English) in many of its states. Canada too is an immigrant country; it has two official languages, English and French, with English numerically the more dominant of the two, and this status means that there is a long-standing Canadian Translation Studies tradition. Canada has a significant Aboriginal population and continues to deal with the legacy of colonialism within its own borders. It pursues a policy of cultural protectionism against its neighbour to the south and attempts to overcome what has been called les deux solitudes via a generous system of state support for translation between English and French, among other measures. Canada has also seen its military deployed to the Middle East and elsewhere. When I address the transnational entity that is the English-speaking world, I do so with an awareness of these immense differences and in the hope that this book may also be of interest to English-speaking practitioners of translation elsewhere in the world, and perhaps even more widely than that.
第一章,我会通过提出“我们为什么翻译”来思考翻译的职业操守问题。考虑到我们所处的时代和地点,以及过去的时代和传统,从现世和历史的角度来回答这个问题是可行的。但我的回答主要还是以当今时代为背景,重心在英语世界,广义来看主要是英国、美国和加拿大。因为我清楚意识到,“英语世界”这个跨国主体在国家层面和地区层面有各自的面貌和担忧。我的重点放在跨国层面上,是因为英语出版是一个跨国产业,文学译者在不同的国界工作。同样也因为,英语世界的学术圈大都是跨国交流,这在学术出版有所体现。虽然我提出和引用的大部分事例都发生在北美和英国的文化翻译圈,但我并非有意忽视爱尔兰、印度、澳大利亚、新西兰以及加勒比海和非洲以英语为母语的地区,它们的后殖民时代英语都各具特色。我着重讲的几个国家,都是我曾长时间居住和工作过的,相对来说也更熟悉。英国、美国和加拿大的不同国情和国际地位都对“为什么”和“怎样”翻译有重要影响。英国也勉强算是欧盟成员国。而欧盟共有28个成员国,所使用语言不少于28种。英国曾是殖民国家,过去几十年在中东地区参与过数场战争。美国作为全球政治和经济强国,霸权地位受金融危机和瞬息万变的世界秩序所挑战。美国曾干涉过它的拉丁美洲邻居的内政,也和英国一样参与过中东争端。美国是一个移民国家,其中许多州都是双语通用(英语和西班牙语)。加拿大同样也是移民国家,法语和英语为官方语言,其中英语使用的人数更多。这种情况也表明了加拿大翻译研究所长久以来的传统。加拿大还有大量讲土著语的人群,并且仍在和境内的殖民遗产纠缠不清。加拿大采取文化保护主义政策,抵制其南方的美国,并且通过国家通用体系等措施支持英法之间的翻译,尝试克服所谓的“双重孤独”。加拿大也在中东和其它地区采取过军事行动。我选择英语世界作为跨国主体,是因为我意识到了这其中的巨大差异,我也希望世界其他地区讲英语的译者,甚至其他语言的译者,都能发现这本书的乐趣。
Why, then, do we translate? We translate as individuals and as cultures. We translate for other people and for ourselves. We translate for humanistic reasons: to create a world literature, an ideal that dates back to the early nineteenth century and Goethe’s concept of Weltliteratur, to expose ourselves to difference and other ways of seeing, to allow ideas to circulate because we believe in their greatness or their power or because they are unable to circulate in their home culture.
那么,我们为什么翻译?我们代表自己,也代表文化。我们为己,也为人。我们因为人文主义而翻译:为了创造世界文学,这种理想要追溯到19世纪早期以及歌德眼中的世界文学;为了感受差异,体验看世界的不同方式;为了传播思想,因为我们相信思想的伟大和力量,或是因为这些思想在自己的祖国文化不被接纳。
We translate for ideological reasons: to assimilate and to exert control, to seek confirmation of our own viewpoint, to persuade and manipulate and to make money. Translation is also an encounter with literature, a mode of reading and writing: we translate as a form of literary criticism or commentary; we translate out of a creative impulse, because we are curious to see, for example, ‘what Baudelaire sounds like in my voice, what my voice sounds like in Baudelaire; we translate because we enjoy playing with words; we translate because translation is the most intense form of reading available to us, an experience that is quite literally mind-altering, and we wish to allow others the opportunity to experience these cognitive effects through our translations. Finally, in one interpretation of Walter Benjamin’s mystical essay, ‘The Task of the Translator’ (2012), we translate because translation is a spiritual endeavour: as we practice translation we strive for the divine.
我们为意识形态而翻译:为了掌握权力和施加控制,为了佐证自己的观点,为了劝服,为了操纵,为了挣钱。翻译也是和文学的碰撞,是一种阅读和写作的方式:我们作为文学评论或批评家翻译,我们因为创造的冲动翻译,我们想知道,例如,“波德莱尔在我的笔下是什么样?我在波德莱尔的作品中又是什么样?”我们翻译,因为我们喜欢和文字打交道,因为这是我们现有最强烈的阅读方式,这种体验可以真正改变你的思维,同时,我们也希望通过我们的翻译,其他人也能有机会感受这种认知的冲击。最后,援引2012出版的《译者的任务》中对瓦尔特·本杰明(Walter Benjamin)神秘主义文章的诠释,我们翻译,因为这是一场精神的奋斗,我们在翻译中追求神性。

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点评

本文只是literary Translation的开篇几段,但读到”why we translate”的部分,觉得非拿出来翻译不可了——实在有点契合伍老师很久以前发过的那篇“我们为什么要翻译”,有关拿回自我塑造的权利,有关保住话语权。
说话时把想要强调的重点放在后面,是引导听众的一种手段。所以我上面那句,就是想跟你分享我们所希望的重点:自我,话语权。我并非想说翻译这种方式有多通灵或多神奇——实际上我也并非这么想——而是说,我们不得不找到一个支点,去了解、调整自己的内心,去明白和坚持感动的东西。翻不翻的,真的不太重要;文学非文学的,更是轻如鸿毛。
其实生活种种,无处不是手段/方式和目的的关系,而千万个这样的关系汇聚起来,共同指向一个目的:你。
现在的选文指向,我们更多地是希望通过作者之口,发出自己的声音,和读者有那么一两点的互动。假如它们有一两点让你有所心动,那真的是无比美妙的事情。
2019年9月20日
唐萧

  • 本文选自Literary Tranlation<Chantal Wright>

  • 原文链接:无

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