Skip to content

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

在太空军备竞赛已成日常的今天,我们对月亮是否还抱着朴素的感情?当中秋之际一轮明月挂在天边时,不少人心底都会升腾出一种对故乡、对团圆的向往。无论是小时候听到的嫦娥奔月,还是写作时信手拈来的《水调歌头》,我们对月亮毫无陌生之感,好似它挂在天边是那么理所当然,这真是个有趣的想法。这篇文章从展览中一些与月亮相关的艺术作品出发,探讨了月亮与人类的关系,也许今年中秋我们再抬头望月的时候,会在心里对月亮多一丝敬意吧。

——崔颖

👇

人与月亮的故事

作者:ALEX COLVILLE

译者:崔颖

校对:陈玉莲

策划:宋一& 刘蕊

Gazing at the Moon is an eternal human activity, one of the few things uniting caveman, king and commuter. Each has found something different in that lambent face. For Li Po, a lonely Tang dynasty poet, the Moon was a much-needed drinking buddy. For Holly Golightly, who serenaded it during the “Moon River” scene of “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”, it was a “huckleberry friend” who could whisk her away from her fire escape and her sorrows. By pretending to control a well-timed lunar eclipse, Columbus recruited it to terrify Native Americans into submission. Mussolini superstitiously feared sleeping in its light, and hid from it behind tightly drawn blinds.

对着月亮凝眸远眺可谓人类千百年来永恒的活动。赏月可是少数几件可以将穴居人、国王、上班族联结到一起的事情之一。可每人眼中的月亮却都不尽相同。对孤独的唐朝诗人李白来说,皓月是必不可少的酒搭子;霍莉•戈莱特利(Holly Golightly)在《蒂芙尼的早餐》中,对着夜空弹唱《月亮河》,月亮是那个让她感到单纯美好的“挚友”。静谧的月光让坐在太平梯上的霍莉暂时忘掉悲伤难过,享受这片刻的神往;哥伦布假装自己可以控制月食的降临,借月亮之力吓退美洲原住民,并使他们臣服于己;墨索里尼则格外迷信,他害怕睡在月光下,总是将窗帘拉得严严实实。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

译者注:

huckleberry friend:Evokes someone with whom one has a carefree, innocent, hopeful, gentle friendship.(urban dictionary)

哥伦布的故事请参考新华网文章《500多年前“超级红月亮”改变世界历史:拉开美洲殖民化序幕》

It would be a challenge for any museum to chronicle the long, complicated relationship humanity has with the Moon, but the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London has done it. For the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing, the museum has placed relics from those nine remarkable days in July 1969 alongside cuneiform tablets, Ottoman pocket lunar-calendars, giant Victorian telescopes and instruments designed for India’s first lunar probe in 2008. This impressive exhibition tells the history of humanity’s fascination with this celestial body and looks to the future, as humans attempt once again to return to the Moon.

人与月亮之间的关系悠长且复杂,这对任何一个试图记述这轨迹的博物馆来说都是个挑战,但伦敦格林威治国家海事博物馆做到了。在阿波罗11号登月50周年之际,博物馆展出了1969年7月那历史性的九天‘太空之旅’中的一些文物。与之一同展出的还有刻印的楔形文字、袖珍的奥斯曼帝国太阴历、维多利亚时代的巨大望远镜和2008年印度为首次探月而设计的仪表。在人类再次尝试重返月球之际,这个展览令人印象深刻,它不仅讲述了人类对月亮痴迷的过往,也为未来指明了方向。

The Moon was once the domain of the gods, who had placed this seemingly smooth orb in the heavens, the finishing touch to a perfectly ordered creation. The red of the blood Moon was a sign of divine imbalance that only humanity could correct: the Chinese banged mirrors, the Inca shouted and the Romans frantically waved burning torches. In later ages when “progress” became a watchword, the Moon was colonised by Promethean dreams. Galileo swivelled his new telescope on the Moon in 1609, finding not perfect smoothness but chaotic crags and craters. It became a world to be lived on like any other, a place that could conceivably be travelled to, by beanstalk, catapult or geese, as the heroes of novels did, or in the latest inventions like hot-air balloons and giant cannon. Reaching out to it became almost an instinct, an act that confirmed humanity’s intelligence and immortality. “From the moment the first flint was flaked this landing was merely a matter of time,” wrote WH Auden in 1969.

月球曾是众神的领地,神将这看似平坦的球体置于天际之中,为天地万物这一井然有序的作品画上了点睛之笔。旧时血月所呈现的红色被看作神界失衡的征兆,而只有人类才有能力让之重回正轨:比如中国人曾击鉴救月;印加人则对月怒吼;罗马人会发狂般地挥舞手中燃烧的火把以示恐吓。几个世纪后,当“进步”成了时代之音,人类将普罗米修斯式的梦想投射到了月球。1609年,伽利略对着月亮转动着他新发明的望远镜,发现月表并非一马平川而是遍布杂乱的环形山与陨石坑。像其他地方一样,月球成了人们眼中可以安居的一片天地,人们幻想像小说中的英雄那样,顺着参天的豌豆茎爬上来、被弹弓掷上来或由鸿雁代车,要不就坐最新发明的热气球或者巨型炮登陆也可。登月几乎成为了人类的一种本能,一种证实人类智慧与不朽的举动。1969年威斯坦•休•奥登曾写道,“当人类学会击石取火那一刻,登月便仅仅是时间问题了。

译者注:
唐代《开元天宝遗事》卷四中“击鉴救月”中写道:“长安城中,每月蚀时,即士女取鉴向月击之,满郭如是,盖云救月蚀也”。
Promethean:willing to take risks in order to create new things or do things in new ways, like Prometheus, the ancient Greek demigod (= part human and part god) who stole fire from Mount Olympus.

Today, a gaggle of countries and companies plan to return to the Moon. Shimizu Corporation, a Japanese engineering firm, thinks it can solve the global energy crisis by assembling a belt of solar panels around the lunar equator, a shiny black girdle visible from our planet by 2035.

如今,许多国家及公司都有再次登月的计划。日本的一家工程公司清水建设表示其计划绕着月球赤道装配太阳能电池板带,以解决全球能源危机问题。待2035年,我们便可从地球上看到月亮上那发亮的深色‘腰带。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

图引用自清水建设官方网站《月环企划书》

As I strolled around “The Moon”, though, I couldn’t help feeling that man has gained more in dreaming about our celestial neighbour than it will by exploiting it.
虽然我还在“月球”展里参观,但这让我不禁感到人类从对月球的想象之中获得了太多,远比未来去开发它所得到的多。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

“I want! I want!” (1793) by William Blake

Opening the exhibition is a tiny print by William Blake. A small human figure is poised to scale the rungs of a giant ladder, a symbol of man’s ingenuity, ambition and bravery, and a foreshadowing of travels to come. Yet the image is tinged with ambiguity. “I want! I want!” could be a heroic statement of purpose or the cries of a spoilt child. Will the superhuman effort of getting to the Moon be compensated by what is found there? Is the Moon the final destination, or nothing more than a ledge propping up the ladder by which humanity begins its ascent into the void? For Blake, there was a dark side to the lunar dream – a place where hubris lurked.

《我想!我想!》(1793) 威廉•布莱克

首先出场的是一副非常小的版画,由威廉•布莱克所作。一个小人正准备爬上一个巨长无比的梯子,他展现了人类的聪明才智、雄心、勇敢及对种种未知旅程的隐喻。然而这一画面又带着几分模棱两可之感,《我想!我想!》可以是一个坚决的宣言,也可以是一个被宠溺的小孩的哭闹。在月球上的发现足够补偿那些为登月所做的所有异于常人的努力吗?月球就是终点吗?亦或不过是为人类架起梯子的一隅空间,让人类由此开启对宇宙虚空更深的探索?对布莱克而言,月球之梦的黑暗一面 —— 潜伏着人类的傲慢与自大。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

“Tale of Genji” from “One Hundred Aspects of the Moon” (1886) by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi

Over six years, Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, a Japanese artist of the Meiji period, created a series of images from episodes in Japanese and Chinese fiction and history, all associated with different phases of the Moon. This print conjures a famous event in the “Tale of Genji” an 11th-century work of fiction, in which the eponymous hero falls in love with a mysterious aristocratic lady, whom Genji names “Yugao”, after the white evening blossom that grows across her dilapidated house. She is tragically murdered by the spirit of one of his ex-lovers and dies in his arms. Here Yoshitoshi renders her as a ghostly figure wreathed by white Yugao flowers and illuminated by a full Moon, symbolic of nostalgia. Meiji Japan was shifting beyond all recognition in its effort to modernise. But no matter what changed, the Moon was always there.

月冈芳年所绘《月百姿》(1886)中《源氏物语》版画

明治时期的日本艺术家月冈芳年,取材自日本和中国的佚事、历史事件,历时六年多创作了一部以月亮为主的大型锦绘(彩色木版画)合集,描绘出千态百姿的月相。这一副勾勒出《源氏物语》中颇为出名的一幕,《源氏物语》是十一世纪的小说,与小说同名的主人公源氏爱上了一位神秘的贵族小姐,因晚风中盛开的白色夕颜花自顾开放,蔓生过了女子那残破的小屋,故源氏为其取名“夕颜”。女子后被源氏之前诸多情人中的一位(六条御息所)的生灵所杀,并死于源氏怀中。月冈芳年这里把她塑造成一个鬼魂似的人物,被白色的夕颜花所环绕,一轮满月洒下的月光将她照亮,象征着对昔日之情的追忆。画家所处的日本明治时期,举国奋力现代化,早已辨认不出日本旧时王朝的古风遗迹,但无论家园如何变迁,月亮却仍悬挂于天际。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

“The Moon” (1787) by John Russell

By day, John Russell painted the likenesses of London elites. By night, he whiled away the hours bent over a telescope, sketching the Moon under different light conditions. Cartographers were making increasingly precise charts of the lunar surface, but Russell believed that only an artist could capture the orb’s lustrous character. He married attention to detail – Russell was fascinated with the craters and contours of the Moon – with an eye for colour. His use of pastels gives his lines the blurred softness which inspired Flaubert to liken the Moon to “a rounded fragment of ice”. Even though Russell’s drawings of the Moon, somewhere between a map and a portrait, are so evocative, he was criticised for neglecting his earthly sitters, and his Moon drawings were eventually forgotten.

《月球》 (1787)约翰•拉塞尔

白天,约翰•拉塞尔为伦敦的精英阶层画肖像;夜晚,他则一连几个小时俯身在望远镜前,画下他在不同光线下观测到的月亮。虽然地图绘制员手中的月表图愈发精确,但拉塞尔坚信只有艺术家才能扑捉到月亮那璀璨的特点。他对月亮的轮廓与月表的陨石坑格外着迷,这让他将自身对色彩的敏感和对细节的关注合二为一。蜡笔的运用让他笔下的线条有一种略带模糊的柔和,这给福楼拜带来了灵感 —— 月亮好似“圆边的冰粒”。拉塞尔笔下的月亮大约介于地图与肖像画之间,尽管他的天上之作充满让人共情的力量,可他却因疏忽了地上的工作而饱受指摘,终于人们忘了他还曾画过天上的月亮。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

Poster for “Frau im Mond” (Woman in the Moon) (1929)

In the early 20th century, artists and scientists worked together to shape the space age. For his 1929 film, “Frau im Mond” (Woman in the Moon), German director Fritz Lang employed rocket scientists as consultants. The film was the first realistic depiction in the cinema of what it might be like to send men (and one woman) to the Moon. The rocket launch was an exciting novelty, and the countdown from ten to zero so dramatic, it was adopted by NASA. Lang didn’t get everything right. When the actors landed on the Moon, they strutted around a breathable Alpine world in plus-fours. But Lang’s rocket was so accurate that, by 1937, the Nazis had banned the international distribution of the film for fear that their enemies would deduce how to assemble the regime’s prized V2 rocket.

《月里嫦娥》海报 (1929年)

二十世纪初,艺术家与科学家联手打造了‘太空时代’。德国导演弗里茨•朗执导了1929年的电影《月里嫦娥》,片中他请来了数位火箭科学家作为顾问。这是影史上第一部逼真讲述送人(包括一位女性)上月球是何种体验的电影。火箭发射新奇得让人凝神屏息,从十依次的倒数把这一幕戏剧化地推向了高潮,连NASA都把这一环节借为己用。朗的作品倒也不是完美无暇,比如当演员们抵达‘月球’后,他们穿着灯笼裤趾高气扬地走在可以自由呼吸的群山间。但朗的火箭做的真是太逼真了,以至于1937年纳粹德国禁止该影片在国际间发行,唯恐他们的敌人会推演出如何组装德国高度重视的V2火箭。

小时不识月,呼作白玉盘

影片中登月后的片段

The Moon National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, until January 5th

伦敦格林威治国家海事博物馆的“月球”展会持续到明年一月五日。

原文链接:https://www.1843magazine.com/culture/look-closer/man-and-the-moon

👇

了解我们:关于取经号

回复关键词PDF,下载PDF版本

回复关键词目录,查看目录

微信公众号:取经号

微博:取经号JTW

网站:qujinghao.com

Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注