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是谁制造了明星?

是谁制造了明星?


我们翻译这篇文章的理由


名人崇拜体现内心投射。人类对于完美、全能等品质,有着天然的崇拜。用带有宗教色彩的语言说,是我们创造了自己的神。在消费主义时代,名人文化成为一种商品。流水化的包装、人设的算计、基于感官愉悦的精准贩售、交互型的追星体验,偶像的颜值和光环是现代商业社会综合营销的结果。就像文中所说的,我们在有意无意之间,全都成为了造星行动的参与者。名人文化已经成为我们生活的一部分。

——刘璠


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是谁制造了明星?


作者:Sharon Marcus

译者:刘璠

校对:崔颖

策划:陈玉莲 & 刘璠


The pandemonium of modern celebrity began in 19th-century theatre

名人文化的狂热,源自19世纪的剧院


Why do so many people care so much about celebrities? Just as each generation believes it invented sex, so each thinks it created celebrity. Ask someone born in the 21st century what defines celebrity culture, and they will likely single out the digital media that allow anyone with a cell phone to ‘like’, retweet and comment on a Kim Kardashian post in seconds. 

为什么人们那么关注明星?就像每个时代都相信自己创造了性,每个时代也认为自己制造了明星。如果你问一个21世纪出生的人,什么是名人文化。他们很可能会特别提出,电子媒体的兴起使得人人都可以在数秒内通过手机“点赞”、转发和评论金·卡戴珊的帖子。

Each generation thinks it invented sex; each generation is totally mistaken. Anything along that line today was commonplace both in Pompeii and in Victorian England; the differences lie only in the degree of coverup — if any.

Robert Anson Heinlein, Introduction to “Cliff and the Calories,” in Expanded Universe, (1980), pg. 355


The mid-century cultural critics Theodor Adorno and Daniel Boorstin had a more paranoid view: they believed that the media imposed stars on a mindless public. Then in the 1980s and ’90s, the scholars Jackie Stacey and Henry Jenkins saw the public as in charge, making or breaking stars. In prosperous times, celebrity biographies tend to attribute stardom to talent, luck and hard work. In precarious times, we hear more about icons who self-destruct.

20世纪中期的文化评论家西奥多·阿多诺和丹尼尔·布尔斯廷德的看法则更为偏执。他们认为,媒体将明星强行推广给了无脑的公众。到了80年代和90年代,学者杰姬·史黛西和亨利·詹金斯认为,是公众在制造和毁灭明星。在繁荣时期,明星传记通常把他们的成功归因于天赋、幸运和努力。在萧条时期,明星自我毁灭的新闻则会更多。


All these views assign power to one and only one element in the equation: the media, the public or the stars. All of them are wrong – because all of them are right. No single group has the power to make or break a star. Three equally powerful groups collude and compete to define celebrities: media producers, members of the public and celebrities themselves. None has decisive power, and none is powerless.

上述所有观点都只谈及了方程式中的一个因素:或是媒体、或是公众,或是明星。这三个因素都是错的——因为它们都是对的。没有一个单一群体可以制造或毁灭明星。三种势均力敌的群体之间通过互相勾结和竞争来界定明星:媒体制作人、公众和明星本身。没有一种势力起到决定性作用,也没有一种势力是可以忽略不计的。


The three-way effort to create, define and undo celebrities is tireless. To become famous, the American rapper Cardi B had to do more than record catchy tunes. She had to promote them effectively to people who liked them. She had to be outrageous and self-revealing enough to garner a huge following on Instagram. She had to collaborate with a celebrity band, Maroon 5, and feud with the already established star rapper Nicki Minaj. (Don’t know who these people are? Many 12-year old girls will be happy to enlighten you.)

制造、定义、毁灭明星的三方尝试永无休止。为了成名,美国说唱歌手Cardi B除了录制脍炙人口的歌曲,还不得不做得更多。她必须把这些歌曲有效地推广给喜欢这些歌曲的人。为了获得Instagram上巨量粉丝的关注,她不得不保持一个足够大胆且直白的形象。她不得不和Maroon 5(一个知名乐队)合作,并和一个早已成名的说唱歌手Nicki Minaj竞争。(不知道这些人是谁?很多12岁的女孩子会很乐意向你安利。)


In January 2019, Cardi B won an online battle with Donald Trump when she posted an Instagram video calling his government shutdown ‘crazy’. The Twitter-mad president signalled his defeat with an uncharacteristic response: silence. A month later, Instagram trolls attacked Cardi B for not deserving her Grammy. She left the platform, only to return two days later. The story continues.

2019年1月,Cardi B在与特朗普的一次在线PK中获胜。她在Instagram上发布了一则视频。视频中,她称美国政府的歇业是件“疯狂”的事。而沉迷推特的总统却一反常态以沉默回应。一个月后,Instagram上的键盘侠攻击Cardi B不配获得格兰美奖。她退出了推特,但仅仅离开了两天。这种事如此往复,继续上演。


Social media amplifies and speeds up interactions between audiences, media and stars, but YouTube and Twitter did not invent modern celebrity culture. That happened more than 150 years ago, thanks to the popular press, commercial photography, railways and steamships, and national postal systems. 

社交媒体放大和加速了观众、媒体和明星之间的互动,但油管和推特并不是现代名人文化的制造者。名人文化早就在150年前就出现了。这一切都要归因于出版业的兴起、商业摄影的普及、火车和蒸汽轮船的出现,以及全国邮政系统的建立。


Consider Edwin Booth (1833-93), one of the most famous American actors of the 19th century. Remembered today, if at all, as a brother of the man who assassinated president Abraham Lincoln, Booth became known in his time for playing Hamlet, Richard III and Brutus in Julius Caesar. His acting yielded enough money for him to buy several theatres and a Gramercy Park mansion in New York City that he turned into an all-male club, the Players, where actors could rub shoulders with elites. He lived on the building’s top floor, surrounded by books, theatrical memorabilia and the hundreds of letters he received between the 1860s and ’90s and chose to save.

让我们来看看爱德温·布思。这是19世纪最有名的美国戏剧演员之一。如今人们偶尔会记起他——那个刺杀林肯总统的凶手的兄弟。在那个时代,布思因扮演哈姆雷特、理查德三世和《凯撒大帝》中的布鲁图斯而出名。他做演员的收入足以使他能够买下几个戏院和纽约格雷莫西公园的一处公馆。这座公馆后来被他改建成了一个仅限男性出入的俱乐部the Players,为男演员提供了一个可以结识精英的机会。他住在这座公馆的顶楼,房间里放满了书籍、戏剧相关的纪念品和从1860年开始到90年代收到并保存下来的几百封信件。


Booth’s fanmail attests to the many links connecting 19th-century audiences, media and stars. Thanks to steamships, he had performed in Europe and received letters from England and Germany. Thanks to railways, his US audiences included major cities and smaller locales from Akron to Zanesville.

布思的影迷来信可以用来佐证19世纪连结观众、媒体和明星的众多联系。因为蒸汽轮船的出现,他去过欧洲表演,因此收到了来自英国和德国的信件。因为有了火车通行,从俄亥俄州的大城市阿克伦到小城镇曾斯维尔,遍布他的影迷。


Some of the letters that Booth preserved were ‘mash notes’ soliciting assignations. Others begged for money, jobs or free acting lessons. Some plied him with quack medical remedies or tried to convert him. Dozens sent the actor long poems combining all of the above.

布思保留下来的一些信件中,有些是想要和他约会的“求爱信”。其他的来信中,有要钱的、找工作的和寻求免费表演课程的。有些人给他寄来一些江湖郎中的药方子,或者试图改变他的宗教信仰。很多人寄给他的长诗里,杂糅了上述种种。

quack /kwæk/ noun (informal, disapproving) a person who dishonestly claims to have medical knowledge or skills 江湖郎中;冒牌医生;庸医


Many letters lavished Booth with praise but quite a few offered unsparing criticism worthy of any Twitter troll. One correspondent in 1866 advised Booth how to be a better Richard III. ‘Your appearance was not sufficiently stern and sombre,’ the writer complained. ‘You might … have a larger hump on the back & a more infirm gait as you move on the stage.’ Other critiques were less polite. ‘Shakespear No 2’ offered pungent advice in a scrawl that grew larger with each line: ‘Mr Booth Your Hamlet is overdone. Your constant contortions render your part monotonous. Some parts are well done but in others where you should act like a rational man you act more like a maniac.’

很多信中充满了人们的溢美之词,但提出批评的也不在少数,严厉程度不亚于那些推特喷子。一封1866年的来信为他更好地诠释理查德三世提供了建议。“你的外表还不够严肃和阴郁”,写信人抱怨道,“你也许应该演的背更驼一些、步子再虚弱一些。”其他的批评就没有那么有礼貌了。一封信来自一个叫做“莎士比亚2号”的人,字迹潦草,而且越写越大,但内容却一针见血:“布思先生,你的哈姆雷特用力过度了。你经常性的扭曲动作让你变得有点乏味。有些部分你表演得很好。然而在有些部分中,你本该表现出理性,却演得像个疯子。”

maniac /ˈmeɪniæk/ noun (informal) a person who behaves in an extremely dangerous, wild, or stupid way 行为极其危险(或狂暴、愚蠢)的人;疯子;狂人 SYN madman


One correspondent ranked Booth’s critics. A journalist who had reviewed Booth’s Charleston appearances sent clippings for the actor’s perusal. A woman who requested an edition of Booth’s most frequently performed plays used a colour code to distinguish the six different occasions she had seen him as Hamlet.

有一位通信人在布思的批评者中夺得头筹。这是一位曾评论过布思在查尔斯顿(Charleston)演出的记者。他将评论的剪报寄给了演员本人过目。另一位女士想要布思最常演的几部戏组成的一本合辑,并用色码区分好了她所看到的布思在饰演哈姆雷特时的六个不同场景。

clipping an article or a story that you cut from a newspaper or magazine and keep 剪报;杂志剪辑资料


The French opera singer Pauline Viardot received and kept a similar set of letters, as did the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. To be sure, 19th-century print publics were less visible to one another than digital publics are today. But the continuities between celebrity cultures past and present are real, and offer a telling clue to what really intrigues people about celebrity culture.

法国歌剧演唱家保琳娜·维亚尔多同样收到并保存了相类似的一些信件。美国诗人亨利·沃兹沃斯·朗费罗也是如此。可以肯定的是,19世纪的美国读者相比现在电子媒体的受众,彼此之间并没有那么高的透明度。但是,名人文化过去和现在之间的延续性是真实存在的,并且为我们解读名人文化备受关注的原因提供了强有力的线索。

telling /ˈtelɪŋ/ adj. having a strong or important effect; effective 强有力的;有明显效果的;显著的


All of us, even those who ignore celebrities, are part of a story whose outcome we can influence but never fully predict. Celebrities are neither pawns nor gods. Every time Cardi B releases a new song, poses for a magazine cover or posts on social media, she can gain or lose status. Members of the public are neither passive consumers nor omnipotent creators. They argue among themselves, and each individual’s decision to engage or ignore celebrities helps to make or break stars. Journalists use celebrity coverage to get the public’s attention. Some criticise celebrities; others cater to them.

所有人,即使是那些不关心名人文化的人,也是故事的一份子。我们能够影响故事结局,但却永远无法完全预测。明星既不是棋子,也不是上帝。每一次Cardi B发布新歌、拍摄杂志封面照,或在社交媒体上发帖,都会吸粉,也会掉粉。公众不是被动的消费者,也不是万能的造物主。公众间本就会(互相)争辩。每一个粉丝的点赞和取关,都会对制造和毁灭一个明星起到作用。新闻从业者们报道名人以吸引公众注意。他们中的一些人批评名人,一些人则逢迎。


The resulting pandemonium is celebrity culture – a drama that many help to script but that no-one fully controls. If we knew for certain how the story ended, we might lose interest. If we had no role to play in the outcome, we might be less intrigued. The moral of this tale: celebrity culture is neither all good nor all bad. But if you don’t like celebrity culture, don’t blame the internet. Blame everyone.

这狂热的结果即名人文化——一部由多人参与创作却无一人能够全程掌控的戏剧。人们如果知道故事的结局,可能会觉得没意思。如果无法参与制造结果,也许就不会那么着迷。故事的寓意是这样的:名人文化有好有坏。但如果你不喜欢,别怪网络。怪每一个人。


原文链接:

https://aeon.co/ideas/the-pandemonium-of-modern-celebrity-began-in-19th-century-theatre


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参考阅读:

阿多诺一直坚守高标准——文化并不仅仅是技术的进步(比如能创作出更优美、更复杂的曲目),而且(可能是间接地)事关道德。即使在战前的维也纳,阿多诺也在欧洲文化中看到崩溃的警告信号。芭蕾舞“开始与野蛮文化互送秋波”的现象并不仅仅是音乐方面的问题——它反映出了社会事实,而且确实显露出了某种文化衰退、社会集体统治个人的迹象。
《大众文化之殇》,取经号,https://qujinghao.com/2018/03/20/5742/


哦然後不要以為有粉絲被捧很爽

首先被稱讚是會習慣的,一開始被大家捧可能很開心,但那個開心度會漸漸降低、就跟吸毒越吸越重一樣

然後哪天稱讚的聲音少了,有些人就會開始焦慮

一焦慮就開始喪失方向,瘋狂賣弄自己創造話題,搞得很像小丑

(這是比較Bad End的那種)

然後並不是每個粉絲都是鐵粉或盲粉

相信不管哪個圈子都有「師父粉」

譬如我朋友在社群網站罵「幹」,就被師父粉指教「你罵髒話會影響你的聽眾,你要有公眾人物的自覺」

但他那時候也才三千粉而已= =

「師父粉」不只指教你的言行、還會對你的作品指指點點

https://twitter.com/setsunann_tw/status/1086283403152879616



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