Skip to content

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

不知不觉,“健康”生活再度成为了时下的热词,社交媒体上的精英人士选择花椰菜代替米饭,用低脂沙拉代替传统三餐,而羽衣甘蓝和牛油果则化身为“健康餐桌”的代名词。社交媒体上所风靡的瘦身前后对比照以及与之相伴的动人故事,更是激励更多的女性通过控制饮食和疯狂健身来换取曼妙身材。然而,如果当有一天,摆在你面前的食物不再是关于色香味的美妙体验,而是被大脑自动拆分成碳水、蛋白质、脂肪和纤维,而你每吃一口,你的耳后就会有一个声音响起,提示你摄入了多少卡路里的罪恶,这时你是否会疑问,这样的“健康”是值得的吗?这场关于“节食”的战斗是真正的科学吗?还是一个由男权社会精心编织的谎言呢?

——罗玉池

👇

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?

作者:JessicaKnoll

译者:泮海伦

校对:罗玉池

点评&推荐:王雅婧

策划:罗玉池& 朱小钊

Smash the Wellness Industry

粉碎健康产业

Why are so many smart women falling for its harmful, pseudoscientific claims?

万千智慧女性为何为有害身心的伪科学买单?

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?At its core, wellness demonizes calorically dense and delicious foods.

健康主义的核心是将高卡路里和美味的食物妖魔化。

A few months ago, I had lunch with the writer behind one of my favorite movies of the year, the agent who made the deal and the producer who packaged the project. I wanted to hear all about the process and perhaps find an opportunity to collaborate. When the server came to take our order, I flashed to that scene in “Romy and Michele’s High School Reunion” when Mira Sorvino walks into a diner in a striped skirt suit and asks the waitress, “Do you have some sort of businesswomen’s special?”

几个月前,我与今年我最喜爱的电影之一的主创人员们共进午餐,在场的包括编剧、负责项目拍板的经理人以及整个项目执行的制片人。一方面我对这部电影的制作过程充满了好奇,另一方面也盼望以后能有机会与大家合作。当服务员来为我们点单时,我突然回想起电影《阿珠与阿花》中的一幕,主演米拉·索维诺穿着条纹裙步入一家小餐馆,问女服务员“有没有什么适合职场女性吃的食物?”

译注:米拉·索维诺饰演的女主人公之一本是小人物,为了参加同学会而穿上西装条纹裙,假扮成功人士。

Had there been any sort of businesswomen’s special that day, our group probably couldn’t have ordered it. Someone was slogging through the Whole30 program, someone had eliminated dairy, and someone else was simply trying to be “good” after a “bad” weekend. The producer said it didn’t matter how “good” she was. She had lost the baby weight and though she may look tolerable in clothes, under the Spanx her stomach was a horror show. The writer said she had so much cellulite on her thighs she looked diseased. I gazed around the restaurant, longingly, wondering what the men eating cheeseburgers were talking about.

如果当天有什么职场女性专属套餐,我们一行人也不会点的。我们之中,有正跟Whole30饮食法较劲的,有戒乳制品的,还有周末放纵之后想重新找回自律的。制作人说她有多自律并不重要,重要的是她刚恢复产前体重,尽管穿上衣服还看得过去,但塑身衣下的肚子有多恐怖只有她知道。编剧说她的大腿上布满了橘皮组织,看起来像得了什么大病。我环顾餐厅四周,好奇那些放肆吃着芝士汉堡的男士们正聊些什么。

At one time, I too would gleefully have torn myself apart. I despised my body, and my devotion to changing it amounted to years of unpaid labor, starting with a bout of bulimia in high school. In preparation for my wedding, I worked out twice a day on 800 calories. From there I moved on to counting macros, replacing rice with cauliflower pellets, 13-day cleanses, intermittent fasting and an elimination diet that barred sugar, dairy and nightshades like potatoes.

曾经的我也会欣然地对自己痛下狠手。我为身材而自惭形秽,那是从高中得了一阵贪食症开始,之后我为了改善它而做的努力算得上是几年的义务劳动。婚礼前夕,我每天健身两次,消耗800卡路里。从那以后,我进阶成了一套计算程序,时不时上演西兰花代替米饭、清肠13天、间歇性断食以及戒糖戒奶戒淀粉的戒断饮食法等戏码。

Every new regimen ended in the same violent binge. I’d wait for my husband to go to bed so that I could obliterate the pantry without him asking, “Are you O.K.?” For the next few days, I would throw myself on the altar of “clean eating,” only to start the cycle all over again.

不幸的是,无论哪种养生妙法,都终结于一场暴饮暴食。每次我都等到丈夫上床睡觉之后行动,这样就不用在扫荡家中食物储藏室时面对他的“你还好吗?”接下来的日子,我会投身于净化饮食疗法,然后又暴饮暴食,循环往复。

I called this poisonous relationship between a body I was indoctrinated to hate and food I had been taught to fear “wellness.” This was before I could recognize wellness culture for what it was — a dangerous con that seduces smart women with pseudoscientific claims of increasing energy, reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of cancer and healing skin, gut and fertility problems. But at its core, “wellness” is about weight loss. It demonizes calorically dense and delicious foods, preserving a vicious fallacy: Thin is healthy and healthy is thin.

在社会灌输下,我讨厌自己的身体,惧怕某些食物。我将身体与这些食物间的有害关系称为“健康”。此后我才明白健康文化的真面目——这是一场危险重重的骗局,它打着增加能量,减少炎症,降低患癌风险,治疗皮肤、内脏以及生育问题等等旗号,诱惑万千智慧女性为伪科学买单。但所谓“健康”的核心却万变不离其宗,依然是减肥。它将那些高卡路里和美味的食物妖魔化,拥护的是一个邪恶的谬误:瘦就是健康,健康就是瘦。

Almost three years ago, I moved to Los Angeles from New York. After death and divorce, moving is supposed to be the most stressful thing you can go through, and eating became my salve. I had a second book and a screenplay due, a new city to explore and friends to make, but I could hardly focus on any of that for how crazy I felt around food. So I did a desperate thing. I searched “intuitive eating” online.

大约三年前,我从纽约搬到了洛杉矶。经历过死亡与离婚之后,搬家对我来说是倍感压力的一件事,而进食则成了我的安慰剂。那时候,我的第二本书和一本剧本截稿将至,一个崭新的城市等待探索,一群全新的朋友要结交,我的注意力却全不在此,只为食物深深着迷。万般绝望下,我上网查了“直觉饮食”的相关内容。

Thanks to a stint at a health magazine, I had a glancing understanding of the philosophy, which encourages a return to the innate wisdom we had as babies — about when to stop eating, what tastes good and how it makes our bodies feel. I might have sought it out sooner if not for the part where you learn to accept how your body looks once you stop restricting food, even if that version of your body is larger than you would like.

花了一些时间浏览一本健康杂志之后,我对“直觉饮食”的理念有了粗略的了解。“直觉饮食”鼓励我们找回婴儿时期固有的智慧,来决定何时停止进食,什么食物美味,以及它们带给身体何种感受等问题。如果能早点接受停止节食后身材不再纤细的事实,我也许能更早发现这个理念。

The search led me to a nearby dietitian who is considered by some to be one of the founding mothers of intuitive eating. I picked up the phone.

搜着搜着我查到了附近一个营养师的信息,她是直觉饮食奠基人之一。于是我拿起电话打了过去。

Intuitive eating has been around for decades, but it’s suddenly receiving a lot of attention. Perhaps it’s because women are finally starting to interrogate the systems that hurt and exploit us. Perhaps it’s because we’re driven and ambitious and we need energy — not lightheaded, leafy-greens energy but real energy, the kind that comes from eating the hearty foods men eat.

直觉饮食问世已有几十年,但最近突然受到广泛关注。也许是女性终于开始反思传统健康或瘦身对人体的伤害与折磨,也许我们追逐自己野心的路途上需要能量,那种源于男性吃的丰盛食物的真正能量,而不是吃了让人头晕眼花的绿色植物的能量。

I had paid a lot of money to see a dietitian once before, in New York. When I told her that I loved food, that I’d always had a big appetite, she had nodded sympathetically, as if I had a tough road ahead of me. “The thing is,” she said with a grimace, “you’re a small person and you don’t need a lot of food.”

在纽约时,我花了很多钱去见一名营养师。当我告诉她自己热爱食物,总是有一个好胃口时,她充满同情地点点头,仿佛我将面临的是一条艰难的道路。她一脸苦相地说:“问题在于,你体格不大,不需要那么多食物。”

The new dietitian had a different take. “What a gift,” she said, appreciatively, “to love food. It’s one of the greatest pleasures in life. Can you think of your appetite as a gift?” It took me a moment to wrap my head around such a radical suggestion. Then I began to cry.

对此,我的新营养师有不同的意见。她赞赏道:“那是上天给你的馈赠。热爱食物是人生最大乐事之一。你能把你的好胃口当成一种馈赠吗?”我花了好些工夫来思考这个颠覆三观的建议。随后,我泪如雨下。

Two years into my work with her, I feel lighter than I ever have. Food is a part of my life — a fun part — but it no longer tastes irresistible, the way it did when I told myself I couldn’t have it. My body looks as it always has when I’m not restricting or bingeing. I’m not “good” one day so that I can be “bad” another, which I once foolishly celebrated as balance.

在见她的两年中,我从没有感到过如此轻盈。食物成为了我生命中的一部分——有趣的一部分——反而不似从前我限制自己进食时那样无法抗拒。我的身材恢复从前,就如任何我既没有节食也没有暴食的时候。依据我曾经愚蠢地奉为圭臬的平衡之道,既然我今日没有“自律”,那么明日就一定会很糟糕。。

Occasionally, when I’m stressed, I comfort myself with food, and my dietitian assures me that’s an acceptable kind of hunger too. Emotional eating is a coping mechanism. We’re told it is an unhealthy habit, one we must break, but that’s another wellness lie. It is not vodka in our morning coffee. My binges stopped once I stopped judging myself for wanting to eat the foods “wellness” vilified, sometimes for reasons other than physical hunger.

偶尔压力巨大时,我会用食物来解压。营养师告诉我,这也是一种可以接受的饥饿状态。情感性进食是人体一种应对机制。我们常常被告知这是一种不健康的习惯,必须加以制止,但这其实又是一个健康谎言,而非什么可怕的陋习。有时我会出于生理性饥饿之外的原因,想吃那些为“健康”所诋毁的食物。有趣的是,一旦我不再为此而苛责自己,饮食无度的现象反而消失得无影无踪。

I no longer define food as whole or clean or sinful or a cheat. It has no moral value. Neither should my weight, though I’m still trying to separate my worth from my appearance. They are two necklaces that have gotten tangled over the course of my 35 years, their thin metal chains tied up in thin metal knots. Eventually, I will pry them apart.

我不再把食物分为天然的,洁净的,带来罪恶感的,或是偶尔放纵一下的。对于食物,这些道德信条本不存在。对于体重也是如此,尽管我现在仍在将我的价值与外表脱离开来的努力中。食物与体重就如同纠缠在我35年人生道路上的两条链子,细细的金属链条上打了一个个细小的金属结。终有一天,我会将它们彻底解开。

Most days, I feel good in my skin. That said, I am probably never going to love my body, and that’s O.K. I think loving our bodies is not only an unrealistic goal in our appearance-obsessed society but also a limiting one. No one is telling men that they need to love their bodies to live full and meaningful lives. We don’t need to love our bodies to respect them.

大多数时候,我很开心做自己。即便如此,我也有可能永远不会喜爱自己的身体,但这无妨。我认为在我们这个外表至上的社会里,喜爱自己的身体是不现实而且也颇有局限性的目标。从没有人告诉男人们,他们需要热爱自己的身体,从而度过一个充实、有意义的人生。不热爱我们的身体,并不影响我们尊重它们。

The diet industry is a virus, and viruses are smart. It has survived all these decades by adapting, but it’s as dangerous as ever. In 2019, dieting presents itself as wellness and clean eating, duping modern feminists to participate under the guise of health. Wellness influencers attract sponsorships and hundreds of thousands of followers on Instagram by tying before and after selfies to inspiring narratives. Go from sluggish to vibrant, insecure to confident, foggy-brained to cleareyed. But when you have to deprive, punish and isolate yourself to look “good,” it is impossible to feel good. I was my sickest and loneliest when I appeared my healthiest.

节食产业就像一个病毒,也如病毒般狡猾奸诈。它通过不断调整适应,存活了几十年之久,但它的危险性从未降低。2019年,它将自己包装成健康与清洁饮食重新出现在大众视野中,披着健康的外皮诱骗当代女性们加入。Instagram上的瘦身博主们通过发布饮食疗法的前后对比自拍图,并附上鼓舞人心的故事叙述,吸引了赞助商和数以万计的粉丝。从懒惰松懈到活力满满,从自卑敏感到自信从容,从迟钝忘事到眼聪目明,此类奇迹无时无刻不在上演。然而,当你不得不诉诸剥夺、惩罚、孤立等手段来让自己“好看”,那么你就不可能好受。以我自己来说,最苗条的那段时间也是我最病态、最孤独的时候。

If these wellness influencers really cared about health, they might tell you that yo-yo dieting in women may increase their risk for heart disease, according to a recent preliminary study presented to the American Heart Association. They might also promote behaviors that increase community and connection, like going out to a meal with a friend or joining a book club. These activities are sustainable and have been scientifically linked to improved health, yet are often at odds with the solitary, draining work of trying to micromanage every bite of food that goes into your mouth.

如果瘦身博主们真的关心大众的健康,他们应该会告诉广大女性们,悠悠球式减肥会增加罹患心脏病的风险,正如美国心脏协会最近的研究表明的那样。他们还会提倡一些促进交联沟通的举措,比如外出与朋友聚餐、参加读书小组等。这些活动可以长久地维持下去,且已被科学证明有利于健康,而与精确管理每一口食物的孤立、繁复行为相左。

译注:悠悠球式减肥,即反复减肥。

The wellness industry is the diet industry, and the diet industry is a function of the patriarchal beauty standard under which women either punish themselves to become smaller or are punished for failing to comply, and the stress of this hurts our health too. I am a thin white woman, and the shame and derision I have experienced for failing to be even thinner is nothing compared with what women in less compliant bodies bear. Wellness is a largely white, privileged enterprise catering to largely white, privileged, already thin and able-bodied women, promoting exercise only they have the time to do and Tuscan kale only they have the resources to buy.

健康产业其实就等同于节食产业。节食产业基于一套美丽等级标准,在这套标准下,女性不得不逼迫自己变得更瘦,否则就会因不遵循既定规则而受到惩罚,由此带来的压力也会进一步损害女性健康。我身为一名身材瘦削的白人女性,尚且因为没能变得更苗条而面临耻辱与嘲笑,那些身材不符合大众审美的女性所面对的难以设想。健康是那些大部分由白人构成的、享有特权的企业,向大部分为白人的、享有特权的、本已苗条强健的女性们提供的服务,向她们推广只有她们才有空做的运动,兜售她们才有闲钱买的羽衣甘蓝。

Finally, wellness also contributes to the insulting cultural subtext that women cannot be trusted to make decisions when it comes to our own bodies, even when it comes to nourishing them. We must adhere to some sort of “program” or we will go off the rails.

最终,健康促成了侮辱性质的文化潜台词:女性没有能力对自己身体做决定,即便是在强健体魄方面也是如此。我们必须严格遵守某些“疗法”指导,否则就会误入歧途。

We cannot push to eradicate the harassment, abuse and oppression of women while continuing to serve a system that demands we hurt ourselves to be more attractive and less threatening to men.

如果我们继续墨守成规,以损害健康为代价,以期在男性面前更美丽动人、弱柳扶风,那么消除对女性的骚扰、虐待和压迫的进程将无法推进。

And yet that is exactly what we are doing when we sit around the lunch table and call our stomachs horror shows.

而当我们坐在餐桌前,调侃饥肠辘辘的自己时,正是以上行为的表现。

There is something called the Bechdel test for film. Developed by Alison Bechdel in 1985, an American cartoonist, the idea is that the film must satisfy three requirements to pass: (1) feature at least two women who (2) talk to each other about (3) something other than a man. Sounds simple, but a shocking number of films have failed to pass.

电影作品中存在一个叫做贝克德尔测验的小测试。1985年,它由美国漫画家艾莉森·贝克德尔提出,其核心理念是一部电影必须满足三个条件:(1) 至少有两名女性角色 (2) 她们相互交谈 (3) 谈论关于男人以外的内容。这些条件听起来很简单,然而没能通过测试的电影却多如牛毛。

In 2019, I want to propose a new kind of test. Women, can two or more of us get together without mentioning our bodies and diets? It would be a small act of resistance and a kindness to ourselves.

2019年,我想提出一个崭新的测试。当两名或以上女性聚在一起时,能否不涉及我们的身体以及节食的话题?这将会是我们挣脱束缚、善待自己的道路上的微小一步。

When men sit down to a business lunch, they don’t waste it pointing out every flaw on their bodies. They discuss ideas, strategies, their plans to take up more space than they already do. Let’s lunch like that. Who’s eating with me?

男人们在饭桌上谈生意时,从不浪费时间在对自己的身材指指点点上。他们交流思想、策略,提出如何为自己在社会中占据更多空间的计划。我们也这样做吧。你们谁愿意同我共进如此一餐饭?

👇

点评

女性对自己外形的焦虑,离不开外界的期待和不现实的审美标准,基于女性身份、肥胖、肤色等诸多原因的焦虑和不自信,在社会建构汇中被输入和强化。隐藏在“the prefect body”后面的潜台词是“只有细腰翘臀大长腿的身体是完美的”,变美的无形压力沉重地落在每个女性身上,不管她们愿不愿意,都有意识或无意识地去向这种审美标准靠拢,否则将被冠于懒惰、不自律、放纵等罪名,所以她们坚持吃沙拉轻食,在健身房挥洒汗水,工作之余也不忘练天鹅臂、跳减肥操。

好在这种审美观已经不能再像过去那样理直气壮地横行于世了,“真实即美”“每个身体都是美的”之类的文案处处可见,脸上有雀斑的模特成为各大时装品牌青睐的对象……当然,近年来大热的身体自爱运动(body positive movement),虽然鼓励人们建立积极的身体意向,在挑战单一审美方面起到了积极作用,但也不乏批评的声音。一味强调“每个人都很美”容易将产生的消极身体态度推卸到个体身上,而标榜多元审美的营销终究要服务于品牌利益。归根到底,女性对样貌的焦虑,不仅仅来自于不切实际的审美标准,更来自于女性被样貌定义的事实本身。即使审美多元了一些,人们对美丽的定义宽泛了些,女性还是无法跳出身体的牢笼。或许,不再用客体化的目光去凝视女性,而是挖掘其内在的力量更为重要。

2019年7月8日

王雅婧

参考阅读:

“美丽是要付出代价的,这是众所周知的信条,也是女性对自己反复念叨的咒语。为此,我们动用镊子、蜡纸、细线等十八般武艺来修眉;为此,我们捱过又一小时的有氧运动,无视自己已经饿到胃痛;为此,走秀模特咽下替代食物的面纸和棉球,保持皮包骨的状态以换取工作糊口;为此,我们在寒风中瑟瑟发抖,而约会对象穿着厚实的牛仔裤和羊毛夹克,对此浑然不觉;为此,我们强忍疼痛整晚穿着高跟鞋跳舞,而它越来越不听使唤,在离家十个街区的地方让我们痛到撕心裂肺。”

Summer Brennan,公众号:取经号高跟鞋与三寸金莲,疼痛与病态之美

“锻炼,是为了达到特定结果而进行的肌肉和肢体的运动,往往是为了强健体魄。这对我们大部分人而言是工作之余的附加项——也是我们冗长无比的责任清单上,除了履行家长的义务和养家糊口之外的又一项内容。但因为这项活动的主要受益人的我们自己,所以它就变成了最容易偷懒的小事情。工作了一天回到家,成千上万的人宁愿放纵自己享受一些坐着不动就能放松的事情,也不想去做我们都知道对自己有益的事情:健身。”

微信号:J2West,公众号:取经号为什么健身并不能拯救你的人生?

《盐糖脂:食品巨头是如何操纵我们的》——帮助我们反思自己固有的饮食习惯,以及我们的这种饮食习惯是如何潜移默化地被食品巨头所塑造的。“我们现在生活已经富足,但身体依然会无止境地寻求高能量的糖和脂肪来满足原始社会时为了活下来而衍生出的生理机制。所有食品行业的出发点都是为了研发可口营养的食物,可是当整个社会都基本不存在营养不足而是过剩时,加工食品应运而生。他们就用过量的盐、糖、脂肪让人们的感官获得最大的满足,以获取最大利益。”

https://book.douban.com/subject/26659834/

上野千鹤子《厌女》 “‘身体化’的生活习惯”这一小节探讨了男性和女性对待自己身体的不同态度,非常精彩。而整书正如该书译者所言:“上野则将现实社会的各层各面纳入视野。她的目光所及,从文学美术到社会事件,从家庭关系到天皇制度,从女校到娼妓……。这种广度与深度,使本书成为解剖“厌女症”现象的堪称独一无二的文化批判力作。”

https://book.douban.com/subject/25836270/

👇

关于取经号

精华目录

教程(一)

教程(二)

微信公众号:取经号

微博:取经号JTW

网站:qujinghao.com

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?

  • 鼓励大家阅读原文,主动探索

  • 取经号负责打开一扇小窗

  • 本文原载于The New YorkTimes

  • 原文链接:https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/08/opinion/sunday/women-dieting-wellness.html

万千智慧女性为何会为有害身心的伪科学买单?

微信公众号:取经号

微博:取经号JTW

网站:qujinghao.com

Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注