Skip to content

打卡网红城市?是时候停一停了

打卡网红城市?是时候停一停了

我们翻译这篇文章的理由

种草网红城市,

赶到现场拍照,

然后发到票圈

打卡网红城市,

同质化的体验。

……

是时候停一停了。

——伍豪

👇

打卡圣地难以承受之重

作者:JESSICA BATEMAN

译者:唐萧

校对:崔颖

策划:倪凌晖 &刘璠

The worrying future of Greece’s most Instagrammable island

圣托里尼:网红打卡地,潜藏大问题

Influencers love Santorini’s blue domes and dramatic landscapes. But the tourists who follow in their wake are proving hard to manage

圣托里尼的蓝顶教堂和醉人风光是博主的心头好,但跟风而来的大批游客又该怎么处理?

Agata Wagemaker stops to take a picture of a blue doorway. We’re wandering through the marble streets of Oia, a picturesque village on the Greek island of Santorini. Wagemaker is in her 30s and lives in Amsterdam. She has a full-time job in IT, but moonlights as a micro-influencer, sharing her holiday snaps with the 50,000 followers of her Instagram account, Windmill Dreams. She wanted to visit Santorini, which has been on her bucket list for years, before the summer crowds descend. It’s early April, so officially off season, but already large numbers of tourists are pulling out their selfie sticks.

阿加塔·怀格梅克停下脚步,拍下蓝色的门。这里是伊亚,希腊圣托里尼岛上一个风景如画的村庄,而我们正在大理石路上漫步。怀格梅克三十多岁,住在阿姆斯特丹。她在IT行业工作,但同时也是一位博主,在@ windmill Dreams这个ins账号上和五万名粉丝分享照片。她之前一直想在夏天游客热潮过去之前来圣托里尼,这计划在她的心愿单上已有多年。现在是四月上旬,还不是游玩的最好时节,但已经有大批游客来到这里,展开了自拍的架势。

moonlight / `mun,laɪt / verb [intransitive] INFORMALto have a second job in addition to your main job that you do not tell the tax authorities about

If ever a place felt like it was made for Instagram, it is Santorini. The southernmost island in Greece’s Cycladic region, it is famous for its expansive sunsets and blue and white domed churches, both of which have become a common backdrop on many an influencer’s feed. Its dramatic cliff-face – actually a crater formed from a devastating volcanic eruption in 1600 BC– is almost guaranteed to make first-time visitors gasp and whip out their smartphones. I ask a pair of women in their 20s, who are taking it in turns to photograph each other, why they came to the island. “All the pictures on social media!” exclaims Fariah, who is from Paris. “I just wanted to see it for myself.”

如果有一个地方是为Instagram而生的,那就是圣托里尼。坐落于希腊基克拉泽斯区最南边的这座岛屿,以恢弘的日落和白蓝装点的圆顶教堂闻名,而这两样景象常常是很多网红照片的背景墙。可以说,其壮观的峭壁——实际上是公元前17世纪一次毁灭性的火山喷发形成的火山口——能令首次到访的游客一边惊异着赞叹,一边掏出手机。我看到两个二十出头的女孩在互相拍照,就问她们为什么来圣托里尼。“这可是网红打卡地!”来自巴黎的法莱尔说道,“我就是想亲眼看看。”

打卡网红城市?是时候停一停了

A dome with a view Wagemaker poses for her followers (Agate Wagemaker/Windmill Dreams/Instagram)

怀格梅克为粉丝上传的能看到蓝顶教堂的照片(源自她的ins)

“Santorini has very unique geography that people want to photograph immediately,” says the island’s deputy mayor, Loukas Bellonias. “Social media has turned [it] from just another travel destination into one of the most popular in the world.” He says that during the summer months, mobile phone companies struggle to provide enough coverage for the thousands of people uploading images. At the time of writing, the tag #santorini has appeared in 5,119,277 Instagram posts.

“圣托里尼的地形很特别,看到的人会想要立即把它拍下来,”圣托里尼副市长卢卡斯·贝罗尼亚说道。“社交媒体把它从一个旅游地点变成了全世界的网红打卡地。”他说在夏天那几个月,移动网络公司为了满足人们上传照片的需求可是下了一番功夫来保证网络覆盖率。我在写这篇文章的时候,ins上带有#圣托里尼标签的照片就有5,119,277张。

Over the past five years, the number of overnight stays in Santorini has risen by 66%. As the rest of Greece struggles with the ongoing fallout from its decade-long financial crisis, the island is one of only a few places in the country enjoying economic growth. But not everyone is celebrating. A recent report on overtourism by the European Union’s transport committee warned that Santorini is failing to manage the increasing numbers of tourists, spelling disaster for the local community and environment, and putting “the future of the destination at risk”.

在过去的五年中,在圣托里尼留宿的人数增长了66%。希腊其他地方都深陷由其长达十年的金融危机导致的经济低迷中,而这座岛屿却是该国为数不多的经历经济增长的地方之一。不过,也不是所有人都为之叫好。近期由欧盟交通运输委员会发布的一份有关游客过多的报告就称,圣托里尼未能管控日益增长的游客数量,这对当地社区和环境都是极大的灾难,也影响到该地的未来发展。

Bellonias and his colleagues have been attempting to sound the alarm about visitor saturation for several years, and made headlines in 2017 by introducing a daily cap on cruise-ship tourists. An engineer by trade, Bellonias is in his mid-30s and moved from Athens to Santorini after struggling to find work during the crisis. “Everyone wants to open a business and make money here,” he says, leaning back casually in his chair. “People come from other parts of Greece to find jobs here. No one’s ever short of work. But there are also disadvantages.”

贝罗尼亚和他的同事已经为敲响游客饱和的警钟努力多年,并在2017年出台政策,对邮轮旅行的每日游客数量进行限流,这在当时引起轰动。贝罗尼亚也是个做贸易的工程师,三十五六岁,因为经济危机时期找不到工作从雅典搬到托里尼来。“每个人都想在这儿做生意赚钱,”他悠闲地靠在椅背上说。“人们从希腊各地赶来谋营生。没错儿,都过得下去,但这儿也有不好的地方。”

He is referring to Santorini’s problem with over-development: it is three times as built-up as the average Greek island. “Look,” he says, opening Google Earth on his computer. “Imagine 20, 30 years ago there was a village here and a village there,” he says, pointing to the sprawling mass of buildings now covering most of the island’s west coast. “In five or ten years it could end up one big city.” The municipality has no power to stop new buildings going up. That responsibility lies with the Santorini Building Authority, which is controlled by central government. The EU report is highly critical of Greece’s government, citing its “lack of adequate and appropriate governance” and its failure to implement planning legislation on Santorini.

他指的是圣托里尼过度发展的问题:相比希腊其他岛屿,它扩建了三倍。“你看,”他一边说,一边在电脑上打开谷歌地球,“想象一下,二三十年前,这儿是村庄,那儿也是村庄,”他指着现在覆盖整个圣托里尼西海岸的鳞次栉比的建筑说道,“五到十年后,这儿会变成一个大都市。”而市政当局却也无力阻止新建筑拔地而起,这是圣托里尼建设局的责任,该局由中央政府管辖。欧盟发布的报告强烈批评了希腊政府,称其“缺乏充分、合适的治理”,也未能在立法层面解决圣托里尼的规划问题。

Greece’s planning offices are also mired with corruption and inefficiency. “There are no penalties for ignoring legislation,” says Ioannis Glinavos, senior lecturer in law at Westminster University in London. “There are some restrictions. For example, you cannot build on the beach, but you will see many hotels ignore this.” Glinavos claims that in the run-up to elections, government officials have been known to accept bribes from building owners in return for planning permission.

此外,希腊的规划部门也深陷腐败和效率低下的问题之中。“对法律视而不见不会受到惩罚,”伦敦威斯敏斯特大学法律系的高级讲师安尼斯·格林纳罗斯说道。“确实有一些限制。比如说你不能在沙滩上盖房子,但很多酒店却无视这样的规定。” 格林纳罗斯称,大选之前,政府官员就遭曝光收受贿赂发放规划许可。

The internet has a lot to answer for. Airbnb has pushed up rents so much that employers are buying land to build new housing for their staff. It’s impossible to say exactly how much blame lies with Instagram, but the EU report does state that social media has a role in causing “concentration effects of visitor flows”, encouraging people to congregate around specific areas. Local businesses, however, are not complaining, with many making Santorini’s Instagrammability part of their marketing strategy. Photography tours, in which professional photographers help tourists improve their snaps of the island, are increasingly popular, and companies that specialise in wedding and engagement shoots – particularly for Asian couples – are doing well.

这背后,网络是极大的推力。Airbnb把租金炒的很高,房主都在买地为员工建造新房子。无法确切地说Instagram有多大责任,但欧盟的这份报告确实写道,社交媒体要为“游客的聚集效应”承担一定责任,因为它鼓励人们聚在一些特定的地区。但当地做生意的人却并没有怨气,他们很多人恰恰把圣托里尼“网红打卡地”的名头作为一个卖点。由专业摄影师为游客在圣托里尼拍出美照的旅游形式正流行,那些擅长拍婚礼现场照和婚纱照的公司——尤其是为亚洲情侣拍,也经营有方。

“[Instagram] spreads the word for us on a daily basis,” Nikos Georgiadis, marketing manager of Katikies hotel, tells me on the phone from his office in Athens. The hotel’s Instagram feed, which has 53,000 followers, is packed with images of bikini-clad women gazing out at the edge of infinity pools and wandering down white-painted steps. Before social media, says Georgiadis, publicity campaigns “could only reach so many people. Now, there is no limit.” He says the hotel management thinks carefully about how the hotel will look on their guests’ feeds. Sunbeds and restaurant tables are positioned to give the best views, and someone is even employed full-time to continuously top up the brilliant white paint of the walls: “The blue and white is lovely to photograph but every single speck of dust shows up.” Katikies also works “selectively” with influencers, whom they invite to stay for free in exchange for publicity, but Georgiadis denies any responsibility for overtourism: “That’s from the cruise ships. All the hotels on Santorini are very small.”

“Instagram才是我们每天‘发言’的方式,”卡缇吉酒店的市场部经理尼克斯·奇奥基迪亚斯在电话里对我这样说。彼时他正在他位于雅典的办公室里。这家酒店的Ins上有53000人关注,相册里都是穿着比基尼的女性远眺一望无际的泳池,或者在白色台阶上漫步。奇奥基迪亚斯说,社交媒体出现以前,宣传活动“影响到的人很有限。现在就没这个限制了。”他说,经理会很认真地考虑酒店在客户社交媒体主页上的形象。沙滩床和餐厅的桌子被精心摆放,呈现出最吸引人的一面,甚至还雇了专人来全职为白墙刷漆。“这儿的蓝色和白色拍照很好看,但总会有灰尘和斑点。”卡缇吉酒店也会“有选择地”跟网红合作,邀请他们来免费住宿,换取酒店曝光率。但奇奥基迪亚斯觉得自己的做法跟游客暴增没有任何关系:“那是因为邮轮旅行。圣托里尼所有的酒店都很小的。”

Does Wagemaker ever worry about contributing to overcrowding? “I do actually,” she admits, sounding slightly downbeat. “I’m sometimes cautious about sharing the small places I find. You never know when something will go viral and crowds of people will come swarming in.” Wagemaker says she tries not to be intrusive when she takes pictures, and criticises other Instagrammers for their reckless approach. “Just now I witnessed a girl climbing over a fence to get on top of a dome to take a photo and it was very slippery. It was just hard to watch, I was just hoping she wouldn’t slip. She really wanted that perfect shot. I think [Instagram] pushes people to do some really extreme stuff.”

那么怀格梅克是否担心过自己的行为会使游客激增?“确实有,”她承认道,情绪有些低落。“我在分享发现的小确幸的地方时,有时候很谨慎,因为你也不知道这地方是不是就此会火起来,然后人就全部涌到这个地方去。”她说她拍照的时候都尽量轻手轻脚,避免伤到原有环境,也批评了其他Ins博主鲁莽的方式。“刚才我就看见一个女孩越过围栏攀上教堂顶部拍照,那儿很滑的。然后我就看不见她了,希望她没滑倒。她是太想拍张好照片了。我觉得Ins这样的社交媒体促使人们去做一些很极端的事情。”

This quest for the perfect shot is causing a headache for residents of the island’s busiest spots. “People behave not just badly, but unbelievably,” Michael Ermogenis tells me over coffee at a roadside bakery. A Greek-American who used to work in advertising, he has lived on Santorini for 12 years. “People treat churches like selfie studios,” he explains. “There’s one in front of my house and people used to ring the bell every three minutes or climb up on the roof for their fake wedding shoots. I’d get woken up at 6am by people traipsing across my terrace.” His frustration at the crowds has led him to start hanging “respect” signs around Oia that state “it’s your holiday… but it’s our home”. He also runs a “Save Oia” Facebook page, calling for more sustainable management of the island. “When I first came here I could see there would be problems eventually, because there was no plan [for how to manage high numbers of tourists] at all. But social media has really created the tipping point. All the things that drew me here are now disappearing.”

这种对拍美照的追求想法对住在当地最火的景点附近的居民来说,是个很头疼的问题。“人们的行为不只是糟糕,简直难以置信,”米加勒·厄尔莫基尼斯在路边一家烘焙坊喝着咖啡跟我说。他是个希腊裔美国人,过去在广告业工作,已经在圣托里尼住了十二年了。“人们把教堂当成自拍馆一样,”他说道,“我家门前就有一个教堂,之前人们每三分钟就要来敲一次钟,要不就是爬上屋顶,假装拍的是结婚照。” 我早上6点就被人们在我阳台上闲逛的声音吵醒了。”为了解决这些问题,他在伊亚挂满了有关“尊重”的标识牌——“你的度假地,我的栖身所。”他还开了一个“救救伊亚”的脸书账号,呼吁岛上实施更多更可持续的管理。“我第一次来这儿的时候,我就知道迟早要酿成大祸,因为该岛完全没有计划来应对井喷的游客数量。但社交媒体确实是个爆发点。所有最开始吸引我来这里的东西都在慢慢失去吸引力。

Not long ago, Santorini was one of the most impoverished areas of Greece. The much-photographed cave houses carved into the cliff face were created because islanders had little in the way of building materials. A devastating earthquake in 1956 destroyed over 500 homes and sparked a mass exodus. “The people here went from having nothing – there wasn’t even garbage to eat – to, within two generations, holding the keys to Fort Knox,” says Ermogenis. “They have this incredible gift from nature. But they’re clueless about how to manage it.”

不久前,圣托里尼还是希腊最贫穷的几个地方之一。那些盖在峭壁上的洞穴房子现在是游客必拍的景色,但建造之初却是因为岛上居民没有别的建筑材料。1956年,一场毁灭性的地震摧毁了超过500所房屋,居民开始了一场大迁徙。“这里的人们最开始什么都没有,甚至连在垃圾堆里找吃的都做不到,但在仅仅两代人的时间里,就掌握了打开宝藏的钥匙。”厄尔莫基尼斯说。“他们得到了大自然的馈赠,却不知道怎么利用这些资源。”

Fort Knox 诺克斯堡(Fort Knox)是美国陆军的一处基地,位于肯塔基州布利特县、哈丁县和米德县境内,面积约441平方公里,代表了美国最高级别安保力量的,美国国库黄金存放处,亦曾为美国陆军装甲中心、美国陆军装甲学校所在地。

打卡网红城市?是时候停一停了

In search of that perfect shot寻找最佳拍摄点中

Other industries that have existed on the island, like fava-bean farming and wine production, are either shrinking or have disappeared completely. Yannis Valambous, owner of local winery Vassaltis Vineyards, says that the grapes he uses to create blends have quadrupled in price due to vineyard owners building holiday accommodation on their land or selling it off for the same purpose. “I don’t blame people here for wanting to make money, as they had nothing for so long,” he tells me. “But it’s getting to the point where I am worried it will have the adverse effect and put visitors off coming.”

其他曾在这座岛上存在的产业,比如蚕豆种植和产酒,要么是不景气了,要么就是已经完全消失了。亚尼·瓦纳博斯在当地有一家酿酒厂,叫瓦萨提斯葡萄园,他说为了满足游客需求,葡萄园主在自己的土地上造房子或者是把自己的房子租出去给游客住,这种行为把他用来酿酒的葡萄的价格推高了四倍。“当地人想挣钱,这没错,他们过去太困难了,”他如此对我说。“但他们做的太过了,我开始担心会有负面影响出现,游客就不那么愿意来了。”

The constant building and flood of tourists create tons of rubbish, which is all dumped illegally. Santorini still has no proper waste-management facilities, so all the empty water bottles, coffee cups and restaurant leftovers go into a huge dump which doesn’t meet EU regulations. Leakage is free to infect the surrounding earth, water and air. “We’re not proud of it but we’re trying to do something about it,” says Bellonias, the deputy mayor, who says that every plan for a new landfill site has been rejected by residents who do not want it near their homes or businesses.

不断建造的房屋和激增的游客带来了数以万吨计的垃圾,全部非法倾倒。圣托里尼仍没有合适的垃圾处理设施,因此所有的空矿泉水瓶、咖啡杯、餐馆厨余等等全都倒在一个未达到欧盟标准的巨型垃圾场。泄露的垃圾肆无忌惮地污染着周围的土地、水源和空气。“虽然这并不值得吹嘘,但我们确实在尝试解决这一问题,”副市长贝罗尼亚说道。据他所言,每当要建一个新的垃圾填埋场,总是会遭到附近居民或是商户的阻拦:他们不想住在垃圾堆旁边。

The municipality has no power to overrule them. Out of ideas and with little power to bring in new policies, its current strategy is to promote the island as a year-round destination “in order to ease the pressure in the summer months”. But of course, this brings with it the risk that crowds will stick around for even longer. What about introducing more caps on visitor numbers or a tourist tax, I ask Bellonias. “We could, but how would it work? Say someone wants to have their honeymoon in Santorini, how do we tell them they can’t come here?”

市政府无权强制执行任何政策。由于缺少想法,又无力出台新政策,政府目前的方案是促使圣托里尼成为一个全年开放的旅游地点,以缓解夏季的人流量压力。”但是这当然有可能使游客逗留更久。我问贝罗尼亚,实行游客数量限流或收旅游税的办法怎么样,他说,“我们当然可以这么做,但怎么实施地下去呢?你比如说有人想来圣托里尼度蜜月,我们难道能跟人家说不能来?”

year-round/,year-`round/ adjectivehappening, continuing, or available through the whole year

As the sun sets over the sea, selfie sticks and tripods pop upalong Oia’s sea wall, as visitors jostle to get a picture that will look like hundreds of others. I remembered how Ermogenis had described Instagram’s relentless grip on Santorini: “It’s like a wild beast that can’t be tamed.”

夕阳洒在海面上时,自拍杆和三脚架也瞬间出现在伊亚的海堤上——游客争相拍出和他人一样的照片。我想起怀格梅特描述圣托里尼网红效应的话:“它就像一个无法驯服的野兽。”

pop upphrasal verb INFORMALto appear or happen, especially suddenly or unexpectedly

👇

点评

对当下旅游的「标准模式」多少有些不满吧:种草、打卡、拍照发朋友圈——循环往复,将单一的符号复制再复制。

收获朋友圈的赞数,失去的却是想象力。

不过我想,旅游早已演化成一种「商品」。「商品」会走向同质化,并不意外。

逻辑链条是这样的:需求旺盛,需要大量供给。为了大量供给,产品必须是「可复制的」。为了「可复制」,产品需要足够「简单」。推向极点,那就是简单到只剩一个符号。

(现阶段的)社交媒体天然擅长放大单一符号,把世界塑造得光滑扁平。点开朋友圈、看一看的时候,多少会觉得缺氧。#TheMissing Diversity

让我们做点不一样的事吧。旅游是可以不拍照的,拍完照是可以不发朋友圈的,休息的时候是可以不看朋友圈的。这些「简单」与「舒适」,是我们可以拒绝的。

2019年6月18日

伍豪

参考阅读:

一些得到广泛传播的网红视频却逐渐遮蔽了多元表达的积极意涵,反而导向了一元的、对于特定城市的浪漫化凝视;这类集体性的想象又迅速被市场和决策者敏锐捕获,被打造和固定为网红城市的卖点。
吴梦,公众号:界面1000个人心中有1个重庆:网红城市是如何杀死想象力的?

“太麻烦了。”“如果方便点就好了。”我们说着这样的话,享受着现代科技带给我们的便利,但同时也失去了一些东西:我们的独立性,我们对自己的掌控力,甚至是我们自己。追求方便没有错,但是切忌将“方便”的原则凌驾于一切法则之上。是的,现代生活是方便的,但有时候我选择不方便。

微信号:J2West,公众号:取经号【纽约时报】被「方便」奴役的你

👇

关于取经号

精华目录

教程(一)

教程(二)

微信公众号:取经号

微博:取经号JTW

网站:qujinghao.com

打卡网红城市?是时候停一停了

  • 鼓励大家阅读原文,主动探索

  • 取经号负责打开一扇小窗

  • 本文原载于 1843

  • 原文链接:https://www.1843magazine.com/features/the-worrying-future-of-greeces-most-instagrammable-island

Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注