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超市天生是女人的乐园吗?

超市天生是女人的乐园吗?


我们翻译这篇文章的理由


本文从社会空间与社会角色的关系出发,反思了现代超市背后所体现的性别问题。在回顾现代超市创生历程的基础上,作者认为,超市不仅仅是购买物品的地方,还是一种男性主导的权力结构在日常生活中规训女性的场所。现代超市从空间到产品包装设计的革新,一方面让女性在购物中体会到旧式商铺购物所不能实现的愉悦,另一方面则在此过程中强化了其由男性定义的社会属性,并鼓励女性接纳甚至享受这样的角色设定。


——罗玉池


👇


超市天生是女人的乐园吗?


作者:Erin Blakemore

译者:罗玉池

校对:刘小康

推荐阅读:泮海伦

策划:罗玉池 & 王雅婧


Supermarkets represented a major innovation in food distribution—a gendered innovation that encouraged women to find sexual pleasure in subordination.

超市的诞生是食物分配领域中的一项重大发明——它是一种基于性别的创新,鼓励女性在服从之下寻求性愉悦。


Open up a vintage LIFE Magazine and you’ll find ads for cigarettes, cold cream, TV dinners: all the accoutrements of midcentury modern life, served up by chipper, attractive housewives. But among the advertisements are something else: ugly documents that bear witness to lives of the women who labored under stereotypes. The magazine’s famously stylish slice-of-life photojournalism often turned its lens on the American woman, and in the era of Howdy Doody and the space race, that woman could often be found dragging her feet (and her children) through her local grocery store.

打开一本古老的《生活》杂志,你一定会发现一些关于香烟、润肤膏,或是速冻食品的广告:这些由活泼爽朗又迷人大方的家庭主妇为你提供的产品,都是20世纪中叶现代生活的标配。然而,在这些广告之中还隐藏着一些丑陋的记录:它们是刻板印象下女性生活的见证。在那个《好迪嘟迪秀》和太空竞赛的时代,这本杂志关于时尚生活剪影的著名摄影报道,常常将镜头聚焦到美国女性身上。你可以频繁地看到女性们拖着双脚(和孩子),徘徊在当地的杂货铺。

chipper /ˈtʃɪpə(r)/ adj ( informal) cheerful and lively 生气勃勃的

cold cream thick white oily cream used for cleaning your face and making it softer 润肤膏或是洁面乳

译注1:TV dinners: A TV dinner in the United States usuallyconsists of a type of meat for the main course, and sometimes vegetables, potatoes, and/or a dessert. 诞生于上个世纪五六十年代,通常是一种速冻食品。

译注2:Howdy Doody was an American children’s televisionprogram (with circus and Western frontier themes). It was a pioneer in children’s television programming and set the pattern for manysimilar shows. 美国知名儿童节目。


Take Virginia Newcome, a housewife heralded as “the world’s busiest short-order cook” in a 1962 issue of the magazine. The spread documents the brief highs (a cup of coffee at the dinette, a moment at a candlelit dinner) and the gritty lows (rescuing her 18-month-old son from choking on a peanut shell, cleaning up a bowl an unseen child threw on the kitchen floor) of her life in St. Paul, Minnesota.
以维吉尼亚·纽康为例,这位模范家庭主妇被1962年的一期《生活》杂志誉为“世界上最繁忙的快餐厨师”。这篇报道记录了居住在明尼苏达州圣保罗市的她,生活中短暂的高潮(饭厅里的一杯咖啡,烛光晚餐上的一瞬)和赤裸的低潮(解救被花生壳噎住的18个月大的儿子,清理未露面的孩子扔到厨房地板上的碗)。

gritty /ˈɡrɪti/ adj. showing sth unpleasant as it really is (对消极事物的描述)逼真的,真实的,活生生的


Newcome’s epic struggle to feed her family—50 hours a week in her kitchen—is framed as a heroic act that just so happens to make her the perfect supermarket shopper. “Every vegetable has been cultivated to make Virginia reach out for it, every package designed to make her pluck it off the supermarket shelf,” the writer says. Newcome, according to LIFE, is the consumer equivalent of the chosen one, but she comes across as a frantic servant to her family’s endless, repetitive needs.
为了喂饱一家人,纽康的斗争堪称一部史诗。她每周要在厨房奋战50个小时——这被鼓吹为英雄行径,也正好让她成为超市购物者的完美代言人。作者写道,“超市里每种尽力培育的蔬菜都是为了让她能够触手可及,每个精心设计的包裹都是为了方便她从货架上将其取下”。根据《生活》的描写,纽康是消费者心中的“天选之子”,但她留给人的印象却像是疯狂的奴仆,不停满足着家庭无尽的和繁复的需求。

comes across if someone comes across in a particular way, they seem to have particular qualities 给人留下……的印象


Then there’s Gloria Tweten, a housewife whose 80-hour work week was documented in an August 1955 edition of LIFE. Housewives like Tweten are praised as “the largest, hardest-working, least-paid occupational group in the country,” and her struggles bear witness to the drudgery expected of a woman in the Atomic Age.
下个案例则是格洛里亚·特藤,一个每周工作80个小时的家庭主妇。她也被记载进了1955年8月的《生活》杂志。像特藤这样的主妇们,被称颂为“这个国家规模最大、工作最勤劳、薪资最少的职业群体”,而她们的奋战也见证了在核子时代,女性们“应当”承担的种种苦差。

译注:从1945年三位一体核试成功后开始,标志核技术成熟的象征,也标志着核子时代的开始。随后发生的广岛原子弹爆炸则代表了第一次大规模使用核技术,并引起了社会政治思想和技术发展的深刻变化。在21世纪,“核子年代”的标签所意味着怀旧的感觉或天真,并被许多人认为结束于1991年前苏联的秋天,(维基百科)
本文所强调的应是二战结束后,美苏争霸期间的军备竞赛对国家经济造成的压力。


In every picture, Tweten is beset by screaming, twitching children or by her husband. In one photo, her husband snaps her into her girdle while her toddler writhes between them; in another, she stoops near the floor, mainlining coffee and smoking a cigarette while a neighbor’s child literally climbs up the wall behind her. Perhaps the most sobering photos in the story are a series of images showing Tweten attempting to subdue her children at the grocery store. As she shops with her small children, anguish, frustration, and humiliation are frozen on her face. “When I go marketing with the kids on Friday,” she tells the interviewer, “it’s a three-ring circus.”
每个场景中,特藤都被尖叫抽搐的孩子或丈夫所包围。在一张照片中,丈夫正在帮她围裙,而她蹒跚学步的孩子则从他们脚下爬过;在另一张照片中,她在地板上,嗑着咖啡、抽着烟,背后则是邻居家的小孩正在她家墙上攀爬。不过,这篇报道中最发人深省的照片,或许是另一组展现特藤在杂货铺试图管住孩子们的照片。图中,她正在与幼儿们一起购物,愤怒、沮丧以及耻辱都深深地印在她的脸上。她告诉记者,“周五和孩子们去购物,简直让人手忙脚乱。”

snap /snæp/ v. to move into a particular position suddenly, making a short sharp noise, or to make something move like this.(使啪地)打开,关上,移到某位置
stoop
 /stuːp/ v. ~ (down) to bend your body forwards and downwards 俯身;弯腰

mainline /ˈmeɪnlaɪn/ v. (slang) to take an illegal drug by injecting it into a vein 静脉注射 (此处为一种比喻的手法)

three-ring circus

a place or situation that is confusing because there is too much activity. 比喻一种事情太多而手忙脚乱的状态。


This reality doesn’t exactly square with what we think of the 1950s and 1960s today—or with the lives LIFE sold American women. In advertising’s alternate reality, the supermarket wasn’t the site of an epic battle between mother and child. It was a place of consumption as sensual as it was satisfying.
这些事实记述,与我们今天对上世纪五六十年代的想象、或《生活》杂志试图炒作的“美国女性群像”并不完全相符。这些宣传的背后,还存在着另一层事实:超市并不是一个承载了母亲与孩子史诗般斗争的战场,相反,它是一个充满感官享受并让人从中获得满足的消费场所。


Supermarkets were places where sexuality and gender strictures collided for American women.
对美国女性来说,超市是一个生理性别和社会性别限制所发生冲突的地方


Tweten, Newcome, and LIFE’s readership, however, lived in the real world—one that, by the 1950s, was largely defined by suburban landscapes. Supermarkets were one of the midcentury suburbs’ most important sites—structures as aspirational as they were practical.
不论是是特藤、纽康还是《生活》杂志的读者们,实际上都生活在这样一个现实世界中——一个直到上世纪五十年代,都主要由郊区风貌所定义的世界。而超市则是彼时郊区生活的重心。它们的建筑外形看上去金碧辉煌,但又不失实用价值。

aspirational /ˌæspəˈreɪʃənəl/ adj.

something that is aspirational is wanted by people because they connect it with wealth or success 令人渴望的,令人梦寐以求的.(文中强调这些建筑与财富相连而引人向往。

In the organized, well-lit aisles of America’s supermarkets, women could get lost in the color and splendor of perfectly merchandised fruits and an endless parade of brand names. And as historians like Tracey Deutsch and Adam Mack have documented, supermarkets were places where sexuality and gender strictures collided for American women.
在井然有序又灯火通明的超市中,琳琅满目的水果商品和无穷无尽的品牌商标足以让女士们流连忘返。正如历史学家特蕾西·多伊奇和亚当·马克所写,对美国女性来说,超市是一个生理性别和社会性别限制所发生冲突的地方。


Supermarkets weren’t always the massive retail destinations they are today. Until the 1930s, after all, they didn’t even exist. Before then, grocery shopping meant traveling from butcher to baker to greengrocer. Though there were some packaged goods, people bought most items in their original form and prepared them at home. If it sounds complicated, it was. Without modern conveniences like microwaves, dishwashers or even electric stoves, turning all of those raw products into food was exhausting and time-consuming.
超市并非从来都是今天这样的大型零售终端。毕竟,直到上世纪三十年代,还没有所谓的超市。在此之前,去杂货铺购物就意味着在屠夫、面包师和菜贩之间穿梭。尽管也有些商品是包装好的,但多数人还是会选择未加工的食材,回家自己烹饪。这听起来的确有些复杂。在没有微波炉、洗碗机乃至电烤炉等现代化设备的时代,把这些原始材料变成真正的食物,实在是让人精疲力竭又极其耗时的工作。


It was also women’s work. Many, if not most, men never cooked a meal or shopped for a family’s food. Poor women were the nation’s home cooks—both for themselves and for the more affluent women whose lifestyles they enabled. Cooking was hot, tedious work, shopping a seemingly endless task, albeit one mediated by male clerks.
而这同样也是分配给女性的工作。不说绝大多数男性,但至少是很多男人,都从来没有做过一餐饭或是给家里采购食物。贫穷的女性是这个国家的家庭厨师,她们或是为自己家庭服务、或是为那些阔太太服务,让他人得以专注自己的生活。做饭是一项闷热、乏味的工作;而购物尽管有男店员协助,但也似乎是一项永无止境的任务。


Inside general stores and at grocery stalls, women handed shopping lists to men, who sought out the necessary products behind the counter and inside their stalls. Food was meted out by men and paid for with money meted out by men.
在普通的商店或是杂货铺里,女性把购物单交给男性店员,他们便在柜台后或是摊位里搜寻所需的商品。女性领取到男店员分配的食物,再用家里男主人分配的钱来支付。


超市天生是女人的乐园吗?

A Piggly Wiggly grocery store interior (via Flickr/Allen)

小猪扭扭杂货店的内部照片


There was nothing sexy about this early shopping experience. Food was often unseen, haggled for in a sloppy market. Whole animals, lumpy fruit, cartons filled with splinters, paper packaging that hid the contents within—shopping wasn’t exactly glamorous.
早期的购物体验丝毫谈不上性感迷人。在泥泞的集市里,还看不到食物是什么样,先高声讨价还价一番。到处是整只的动物、坑坑洼洼的水果、塞满碎片的纸箱,裹着纸包蒙人的商品,购物过程毫无魅力可言。


Then, just as the world turned upside-down, so did grocery shopping. First, markets morphed into a kind of omnibus farmer’s market-style setup. Then, in 1916, an entrepreneur named Clarence Saunders did away with almost everything his contemporaries thought of when they thought of shopping for food.
不过,在那之后,和整个世界一样,杂货铺购物也发生了翻天覆地的变化。首先,集市转型成了综合农贸市场。其次,在1916年,一位名叫克拉伦斯·桑德斯的企业家几乎摒弃了同时代的人对于食材采购的全部固有看法。

do away with somebody/something to get rid of something or stop using it. 摒弃,摆脱某物某事


Piggly Wiggly—now thought of as the first supermarket—was different than anything else of its age. Instead of clerks who doled out food, it had carefully organized shelves on which shoppers could find food for themselves. No haggling was necessary; like five-and-dime stores like Woolworth’s, Piggly Wiggly’s products were clearly marked with non-negotiable prices. The store’s fixtures were designed to make food appealing not just for its nutritional value, but its looks—a real innovation for the time.
“小猪扭扭”被认为是首个现代意义上的超市,它与同时代的其他购物场所完全不同。在这所超市中,没有分发食物的店员,购物者们能够在精心布置的货架上自行拿取想要的食物。讨价还价不再是必备步骤;像沃尔沃斯这样的廉价商店一样,小猪扭扭的产品也都被清晰地标明了一个不容还价的价格。他们展示食物时,不仅要表明食物的营养价值,还要让食物的外观更加诱人。在当时来说,的确算是一项真正的革新。

five-and-dime a shop that sells many types of inexpensive goods. 专指一种廉价超市

译注1:小猪扭扭(Piggly Wiggly)诞生于1916年的美国田纳西洲,如文中所说,它彻底颠覆了以往商店的购物模式。1932年,处于鼎盛时期的“小猪扭扭超市”帝国拥有2660家门店。尽管如今小猪扭扭”超市已大不如前:仅在美国17个州拥有600家门店,但它所开创的自助购物理念已经征服了全世界。(引自腾讯网《过于超前,黯淡收场:无人商店还能走多远?》)

译注2:沃尔沃斯超市(Woolworth)创建于1924年,现为澳大利亚市场份额最大连锁超市之一。在其创始之初,便设立“廉价地下室”(Bargain Basement),以更低廉的价格销售一些陈旧或是有瑕疵的商品。在其之后的发展中,也强调以低价和退款保证吸引顾客。


Simultaneously, a revolution began in women’s kitchens. As the economy changed, fewer and fewer women entered domestic service. Concurrently, cooking became easier thanks to convenience products like frozen and canned foods and innovations like the refrigerator and gas stove. And as more and more women began to cook, affluent women headed to supermarkets.
女性当家的厨房里,一场革命也应运而生。随着经济形势的变化,专注于家务的女性越来越少。与此同时,得益于速冻食物、罐头食物之类的方便食品,以及冰箱、煤气炉等新事物的出现,做饭变得越来越简单了。随着越来越多的女性开始做饭,阔太太们也开始踏入超市购物。


During the Great Depression, supermarkets grew in popularity because of their bargain prices. So did worries about women’s behavior in those stores. The new supermarkets encouraged spectacle and unrefined grabbing at deals; they brought in poor women who needed discount groceries.
在大萧条时期,超市因其相对低廉的价格越来越受大众欢迎,但对于女性在这些商店里的行为的担忧也同样与日俱增。这种新型超市偏好浩大的交易场面和粗暴的商品抢购,它们所吸引的是那些需要打折物资的贫家女性。


They also encouraged what some retailers characterized as animal-like behavior. Retailers were shocked that women wanted to elbow one another for good deals, buy canned foods, and (gasp!) shop at night. “Depression weary housewives enjoyed visiting the… markets,” wrote one retailer, “for the circusy, bizarre atmosphere that prevailed provided release for the suppressed emotions piled up within many women by the dreary monotony of depression days.”

这种超市还鼓励零售商们所形容的“野兽行径”。零售商们震惊地发现,女性们热衷于相互推搡来争抢便宜货、买罐头,(天呐!)甚至奋战到夜间。“为大萧条所累的家庭主妇们十分享受逛超市”,一位零售商写道,“大萧条单调沉闷的日子里所流行的这种喧闹奇异的氛围,让女性内心积攒的压抑情绪得到了释放。”


A new aesthetic relied on psychological theories that women needed feminized spaces in which to shop.
基于心理学理论的新美学:女性需要女性化的场所来购物


That simply wouldn’t do, decided grocers. Besides, the stores couldn’t sustain their price-cutting wars in the long-term. And so they turned on their own customers, assuming that women’s orderly, feminine natures could help subdue the monster of their own creation.
杂货铺主们一致认为,这种抢购的模式根本行不通。此外,这些商店也无法在长时间的价格战中坚持下来。因此,他们将矛头指向自己的顾客,认为女性追寻秩序的天性能够帮助他们收服自己亲手创造的怪物。

turn on turn on somebody also turn upon somebody to suddenly attack someone, using physical violence or unpleasant words. 攻击某人


“A gendered order, not a price-shaving free-for-all, characterized these second-wave stores,” writes Deutsch. Stores began to pander to upper-class women to, in effect, create the customer they wanted to attract. They remade themselves in the model of the idealized woman—well-behaved, perky, submissive. Shopping became cleaner, brighter, and sexier.
“第二波商店的特征是按照性别区分对待,而不是给所有人优惠。”历史学者多伊奇写道。商店开始迎合上层女性,或是说,创造他们想要吸引的顾客群体。这些女性把自己重塑成理想女性的模板,个个举止端庄、自信满满而又温顺贤良。购物开始变得更为整洁光鲜,也更加性感。

译注:可参看

From “Wild Animal Stores” to Women’s Sphere: Supermarkets and the Politics of Mass Consumption, 1930-1950, Business and Economic History Vol. 28, No. 1, Papers presented at the forty-fifth annual meeting of the Business History Conference (Fall 1999), pp. 143-153 (11 pages) Published by: Cambridge University Press


This new aesthetic relied on psychological theories that women needed feminized spaces in which to shop—spaces that could titillate and fascinate them while teaching them how to carry out their role as America’s main consumers of food. Clean and efficient, these stores relied on things like fluorescent lighting, carefully selected colors, and sound-absorbing floors designed to keep women’s eyes and ears on the seductive wonders of the food within.
这一新式美学基于这样的心理学理论,即女性需要女性化的空间进行购物。所谓女性化空间,即在教导女性们如何扮演好美国主要的食品消费者角色时,能让她们兴奋和着迷的购物空间。这类商店干净高效,借助日光灯的照明、精心挑选的色彩,以及消音地板,让女性的双眼和双耳都被店内诱人的食物奇观所吸引。


Adam Mack tracks the astonishing ways in which supermarkets worked sex appeal into everyday shopping—whether through Muzak, carefully placed aromas, or the suggestion that male grocery store employees were there to serve them. Ads, like one that represented a housewife as a bikini-clad model squeezing a juicy tomato, writes Mack, “held out the image of the postwar housewife as a highly sexual being, but one who happily contained her desires within the confines of an institution—the supermarket—that helped her fulfill a conservative domestic role.”
历史学者亚当·马克则调查了超市将性吸引融入日常购物的惊人手段:包括助兴音乐,仔细布置的食物香气,乃至男店员随时准备为她们服务的暗示。马克写道,如同那些把家庭主妇呈现为一个挤着多汁番茄的比基尼女郎的广告,“超市的广告巧妙地掩饰了二战后家庭主妇作为性感尤物的形象,将其欲望限制在超市这样的公共场所中,帮助她们维持了保守的家庭角色的定位。”

Muzak continuous recorded music that is played in shops, restaurants, airports, etc. 米尤扎克背景音乐(常在商店、饭店、机场等地连续播放) 

hold out If you say that someone is holding out on you, you think that they are refusing to give you information that you want. 隐瞒 (信息)

译注:可参看Adam Mack, SPEAKING OF TOMATOES”: SUPERMARKETS, THE SENSES, AND SEXUAL FANTASY IN MODERN AMERICA, Journal of Social History Vol. 43, No. 4 (summer 2010), pp. 815-842 (28 pages) Published by: Oxford University Press


Mack notes that supermarkets were sites at which gender roles were reinforced, where women’s sexuality was contained and redirected. Midcentury supermarkets encouraged women to seek out sexual fulfillment not from their bodies, their partners, or their own lives, but from the subservient social roles to which they were bound.
马克提示道,超市是强化社会性别角色的场所。在这里,女性的性欲望受到了限制,并被重新定位。上世纪中叶的超市所倡导的是,女性应当从默认的顺从的社会角色中寻求性满足,而非从自身、伴侣或是她们个人的生活中寻得。


Mack was not the first to pick up on the ways in which sex was used to fuel consumption. In 1963, Betty Friedan brilliantly broke down how American advertisers foisted restrictive gender roles on women in The Feminine Mystique. Using market research about American housewives, she revealed the tactics retailers used to shackle women through shopping.
马克并非第一个意识到“性”被用以促进消费的人。早在1963年,贝蒂·弗莱顿在《女性的奥秘》一书中就已精辟地剖析了,美国广告商们是如何把具有约束性的性别角色强加给女性。通过针对美国家庭主妇的市场调查,她揭示了零售商们通过购物来束缚女性的伎俩。

pick up on to notice something about the way someone is behaving or feeling, even though they are trying not to show it. 意识到,注意到

译注:《女性的奥秘》(The Feminine Mystique)于1963年出版,被普遍视为20世纪最具影响力的书籍之一。本书揭示了20世纪五六十年代广大美国妇女的生活状态及普遍存在于她们身上的“无名”的精神问题。书中提到,女性的奥秘在学术上的定义是“女人的最高价值和唯一使命就是她们自身女性特征的完善;女人完美的本性只存在于男人主宰一切、女人在性方面温顺服从和对孩子施加母爱之中。追求事业的成就和接受高等教育会导致女子的男性化,会对丈夫、家庭、孩子都产生极其危险的后果。”这种定义虽然看似深奥神秘,其本质上只是要求每一位女性放弃接受高等教育的权利,放弃自己的职业,而成为一名职业家庭主妇。(维基百科)


“The manipulators have discovered that millions of supposedly happy American housewives have complex needs which home-and-family, love-and-children, cannot fill,” she wrote. “But by a morality that goes beyond the dollar, the manipulators are guilty of using their insights to sell women things which, no matter how ingenious, will never satisfy those increasingly desperate needs. They are guilty of persuading housewives to stay at home, mesmerized in front of a television set, their nonsexual human needs unnamed, unsatisfied, drained by the sexual sell into the buying of things.”
“背后的操纵者们发现,成千上万理应幸福生活着的美国主妇们,实际上面对着各种复杂需求,而家庭与亲人、爱人与孩子都难以满足这些渴求。”她写道,“操纵者们无耻地利用这一发现向女性们兜售商品。而女性出于超越金钱的道德观,无论这些商品多么精妙,都无法满足日益迫切的渴求。更为无耻的是,这些操纵者说服女性安心地呆在家里当家庭主妇、乖乖地沉迷在电视机前,把自己无以名状、得不到满足的非性需求通过类似性交易的买买买来榨干。”


Supermarkets may seem like democratic bastions where all are welcome, but that wasn’t always the case.
超市或许类似于民主堡垒,所有人都受到欢迎,但情况并非总是如此


Even today, Friedan’s words are chilling. And even today, the supermarket is the place where women are expected to enact their “second shift”—a still-unequal gender distribution of child-rearing and familial obligations like cooking and shopping. And women are still characterized as society’s most important consumers, even if their supposed earning prowess is now expressed in terms like “she-EO” instead of the doting “little lady” language used in the 50s. And they still have less money to spend—for instance, white women make about 80 cents for every dollar earned by a white man. The women who shop at modern supermarkets are expected to manage their family’s money while earning less of it.
时至今日,弗莱顿的话仍旧让人不寒而栗。现在的超市仍旧鼓励女性去扮演好“第二角色”,承担养儿育女、买菜做饭等全部家庭义务,接受依旧不平等的性别角色分工。同时,即使她们所谓的赚钱造诣现在已经有“女掌门”这样的词汇来描述,而不再是上世纪五十年代富含宠溺意味的“小女人”一词,女性仍旧被视作社会上最重要的消费群体。此外,相比于男性,她们的花销仍旧更少。举例来说,白人男性每挣1美元,白人女性只能挣80美分。那些驻足于现代超市的女性们,在给家里挣得更少的同时,却被要求管理好家庭财务。

译注:“she-EO”,谐音“CEO”,用以特指经济方面的强势女性。


The gap is even larger for women of color, and the same supermarkets that were built to contain the sexual urges of white women were designed to lock out African-Americans, Latinas, and others. Supermarkets may seem like democratic bastions where all are welcome, but that wasn’t always the case. As the historian Lizabeth Cohen notes, chain stores took longer to root themselves among working-class shoppers—and to become welcoming for members of ethnic groups like Jews, Italians, and Poles. Ever since their creation, supermarkets have bypassed majority-black neighborhoods, creating a kind of de facto redlining that still affects African Americans’ ability to access nutritious, inexpensive food.
在有色人种中,这样的差距更加显著。这些用以限制白人女性的性冲动的超市,却将非洲裔、拉丁裔等其他美国女性拒之门外。超市或许就像是民主堡垒,似乎来者不拒,但事实并非向来如此。正如历史学家丽萨贝斯·科恩所言,连锁商店在工人阶级消费者中扎根更为悠久,并且更加欢迎犹太裔、意大利裔和波兰裔等众多种群。从诞生之初,超市就忽视了以黑人为主的社区,创造了事实上的隔离线,阻碍着非裔美国人接触到物美价廉的食物。

redlining /ˈred laɪnɪŋ/

 n. the practice of refusing to give mortgage loans or insure properties in certain areas because of the race, social class etc of the people living there. 意指因为种族或是阶级等因素拒绝为一些人群提供贷款或是财产保护,文中是类比阻碍非洲裔美国人获得价低质优的食物。

译注:可参看Elizabeth Eisenhauer , In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, GeoJournal, Vol. 53, No. 2 (2001), pp. 125-133 (9 pages)


Women may yearn for a less oppressed future, but the piles of waxed apples, the orderly rows of boxes and bags, the muted music, and the fluorescent lights of modern grocery stores are all reminders that the structures in which we shop were built along strictly gendered lines. The surroundings may be sexy, but the reality is way closer to that of LIFE’s harried housewives than we might like to think.
女性或许渴求一个不那么受到压迫的未来,但是打过蜡的成堆苹果,秩序井然的盒子和袋子,柔和的音乐,还有现代杂货铺中的日光灯,无不在提示我们,我们当下购物场所的结构就是严格依循性别界限来打造的。周遭的环境或许性感,但是事实是,它距离《生活》杂志上被折磨的家庭主妇,远远比我们想象的更近。


取经号推荐



JSTOR Daily提供了几篇相关阅读文献供读者选读:

1.《从“野生动物商店”到女性专属领域: 1930-1950年间的超市与大众消费政治》

https://www.jstor.org/stable/23703258?mag=sex-supermarket&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

By: Tracey Deutsch

Business and Economic History, Vol. 28, No. 1, Papers presented at the forty-fifth annual meeting of the Business History Conference (Fall 1999), pp. 143-153

Cambridge University Press

2. 《谈到番茄:现代美国的超市、感官与性幻想》

https://www.jstor.org/stable/40802007?mag=sex-supermarket&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

By: Adam Mack

Journal of Social History, Vol. 43, No. 4 (summer 2010), pp. 815-842

Oxford University Press

3. 《大众文化与草根的碰撞:20世纪20年代芝加哥工人的经历》

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2713191?mag=sex-supermarket&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

By: Lizabeth Cohen

American Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 6-33

The Johns Hopkins University Press

4.《健康状况不佳:超市涌入郊区与城市营养不良》

https://www.jstor.org/stable/41147594?mag=sex-supermarket&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

By: Elizabeth Eisenhauer

GeoJournal, Vol. 53, No. 2 (2001), pp. 125-133

Springer


超市天生是女人的乐园吗?

  • 本文原载于 Jstor

  • 原文链接:https://daily.jstor.org/sex-supermarket/


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