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“科学”制造:孪生陌生人

“科学”制造:孪生陌生人


我们翻译这篇文章的理由


随着科学研究的不断推进,无论是自然科学,还是社会科学,都不断在伦理的边缘危险地行走。克隆人类胚胎、基因编辑婴儿,乃至本文所涉的基于三胞胎的儿童心理学研究等,都不得不引发人们的深思:科学研究的界限在哪里?为了所谓的“科研目的”,就可以不顾当事人的利益吗?谁又有权利充当“上帝之手”操控他人的人生?也许这些复杂的问题一时难以给出答案,但我们至少要反思如何处理好“科学与伦理”的关系。我们期望,通过本文三胞胎的故事,能让读者真切感受到“科学”有可能给当事人带来的无可挽救的影响。


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“科学”制造:孪生陌生人


作者: Justin chang

译者:王津雨 & 邵海灵

校对:赵萌萌

策划:邹世昌


‘Three Identical Strangers’ is a riveting account of identical triplets separated at birth

孪生陌生人——失散多年三兄弟,重逢是喜还是悲?


The intensely compelling documentary “Three Identical Strangers” begins by reconstructing a fateful autumn day in 1980, when Robert Shafran, a 19-year-old freshman at Sullivan County College in upstate New York, walked onto campus for the first time and found himself warmly greeted by several people he didn’t know, all of them calling him “Eddy.” After much confusion and some quick detective work, Shafran soon found himself staring into a face identical to his own: Eddy was his long-lost brother Edward Galland, from whom he had been separated soon after birth.

1980年的那个秋日改变了罗伯特·夏弗兰一生的命运:他刚考上纽约州北部沙利文县学院,第一天走进校园,却有几个陌生人亲切地跟他打招呼,而且都叫他“艾迪”。在经历了不少混乱局面并迅速开展了一番调查后,夏弗兰很快就看见了那个和自己长得一模一样的“艾迪”:他失散多年的兄弟爱德华·加兰德,他们一出生就被分开了。对入学那天的回忆与重现,为这部扣人心弦的纪录片《孪生陌生人》拉开了序幕。

 

The story made national headlines that only grew more startling. Seeing what appeared to be two versions of himself in a newspaper photo, a Queens College freshman named David Kellman, realized that he was the third brother. After 19 years apart, the bonds of blood reasserted themselves immediately: Kellman’s aunt recalls that when the young men first met, they started wrestling on the floor like puppies. As they soon realized in the wake of their happy, shattering reunion, the triplets — born July 12, 1961 — had been adopted by three different families, none of whom had been told that their son was one of a matching set.

这个故事登上了全国各大报纸的头条,更惊人的一幕继而出现了。皇后学院的大一新生戴维·凯尔曼在一张报纸上看到了两张与自己相同的面孔,意识到他就是第三个失散的兄弟。分离了19年之后,血缘的纽带立刻把他们重新绑在了一起:凯尔曼的姑妈回忆说,这三个年轻人第一次碰面,就像三只小狗一样在地上欢乐地扭作一团。在团聚幸福和震惊之余,三胞胎很快意识到,他们自1961年7月12日出生后,就被三个不同的家庭收养了,但没有一个家庭曾被告知他们的儿子是三胞胎之一。

 

Identical triplets are rare to begin with, perhaps as unlikely as three long-lost siblings stumbling upon each other in a state as populous as New York. But if “Three Identical Strangers” drops its biggest bombshell early, the director Tim Wardle holds plenty more in reserve. The tricky, twisty structure of this documentary, a scientific and philosophical inquiry by way of a detective story, suggests a joyous earthquake followed by a series of grim, unsettling aftershocks. It careens wildly from near-comic disbelief to unspeakable tragedy, dragging a trail of intense, contradictory emotions in its wake.

同卵三胞胎本来就很罕见,而失散多年的三兄弟在人口众多的纽约州偶然相遇,也是几乎不可能的事。但是,不要以为《孪生陌生人》早早就抛出了最吸引眼球的重磅炸弹,导演蒂姆·瓦德尔还有更多重头戏藏在后面。这部纪录片结构复杂曲折,以侦探故事的方式对科学和哲学进行了探究,在一场欢乐的地震后,紧接着一系列可怕的、令人不安的余震。纪录片先以近乎喜剧的方式展现出一个令人难以置信的故事,而后剧情急转直下,演变为一出难以名状、细思极恐的悲剧,留下观众在一连串激烈而矛盾的情绪中久久回味

grim /grɪm / adj. unpleasant; depressing 令人不愉快的; 令人沮丧的

careen /kəˈriːn/ v. rush forward with a swaying or swerving motion 摇摇摆摆向前冲

In someone or something’s wake: used to say what is left behind by someone or something

 

The story’s happier early moments were well documented, and some in the audience may recall how Shafran, Galland and Kellman — better known as Bob, Eddy and David — became a mid-’80s cause célèbre. They rented an apartment together in Manhattan, made the tabloids’ party pages with their nightly exploits and eventually opened their own restaurant, Triplets. The movie replays their brief cameo in the 1985 Madonna vehicle “Desperately Seeking Susan,” as well as their crowd-pleasing interviews with Phil Donahue and Tom Brokaw.

影片详细记录了三胞胎早期重聚故事中那些欢乐的时刻,一些观众可能还会回忆起,夏弗兰、加兰德和凯尔曼——他们更广为人知的名字是鲍勃、艾迪和大卫——是如何成为80年代中期的轰动人物的。他们一起在曼哈顿租了一间公寓,在小报的派对版面上展示他们的夜生活,最后还开了他们自己的餐馆“三胞胎”。这部纪录片重播了1985年他们在麦当娜的电影《寻找苏珊》中的短暂客串,以及菲尔·多纳休和汤姆·布罗考对他们的那段颇受欢迎的采访。

cause célèbre / ,kɔz sə`lebrə / n. MAINLY JOURNALISM: a legal case or political issue that a lot of people become interested in and argue about 轰动人物

exploit /ˈek.splɔɪt/ n. something unusual, brave or funny that someone has done: 非比寻常的生活(通常用复数)

cameo  /ˋkæmɪˏo/ n. small but well-acted part in a film or play 客串

 

Much is made of the brothers’ shared physical, emotional and temperamental attributes: the similarities in their gait and posture, their preference for Marlboro cigarettes. Above all, there is the nearly uniform quality of the boys’ gregarious charm, which would have made them ideal camera subjects even under less emotionally fraught circumstances. One of the pleasures of “Three Identical Strangers” is that you soon fall in love with those goofy, toothy grins, beaming out from family photos, newspaper clippings and wedding videos.

三兄弟在身形、情感和性情方面都有着共同的特质:他们举手投足非常相似,都对万宝路香烟情有独钟。最重要的是,三兄弟都有着如出一辙的社交魅力,即使没有电影里那般危机四伏的情景设定,他们也是非常理想的拍摄对象。观看《孪生陌生人》的乐趣之一就在于,你会很快就爱上那些全家合影、新闻简报和婚礼视频中,三个小伙子敦厚而开怀的笑容。

gregarious /grɪˈgeərɪəs/ adj. liking to be with other people 爱交际的


The brothers were presented to the public, and, indeed, at times, presented themselves, as a striking argument for biological determinism, a victory for those who believe in the primacy of nature over the push back of nurture. But in wading into that epistemological debate, “Three Identical Strangers” reminds us that even the most galvanizing visual evidence can be deceiving. Through careful reiterations of footage and voiceover, as well as sometimes sinister dramatic re-creations, the movie misdirects our attention at every turn — an appropriate strategy for a story that turns out to be rooted not in coincidence but in conspiracy.

三兄弟被推到了聚光灯下,作为“生物决定论”的一个雄辩而有力的论据呈现在大众面前。而且,确切地说,有时是他们自己在大众面前营造了这样的形象。这对那些相信基因决定一切、后天无法改造的人们来说是一场胜利。但在我们展开这场认识论的辩论时,《孪生陌生人》提醒我们,即使是视觉上最有说服力的证据,也可能欺骗我们的眼睛。通过镜头与旁白的精心反复和对部分故事情节戏剧而又悲剧化的改编与重构,这部电影的每次反转都让观众大跌眼镜、措手不及——这样的叙事技巧非常适合一个基于阴谋而非巧合的故事。

biological determinism:the belief that human behavior is controlled solely by an individual’s genes or some component of physiology. 生物决定论,相信人的行为完全是由这个人的基因或某些生物学上的属性决定的。


Real-life events shouldn’t require spoiler warnings, but those who wish to preserve the freshness of a first viewing should tread carefully over the next few paragraphs. The question that immediately struck the Shafran, Galland and Kellman families — why were the boys not told about their brothers? — is gradually, ominously answered. The film traces the inquiry to the now-closed doors of Louise Wise Services, formerly a prominent adoption agency specializing in finding families for Jewish orphans. Documents and interviews point to the existence of a mysterious study, undertaken in secret, that arranged for identical twins and triplets to be separated, adopted and scrutinized for years afterward.

按理说,已经发生的真实事件并不需要“前方高能有剧透”的警告,但如果你想保留住初次观影的新鲜体验,以下几段还请谨慎阅读。三胞胎团聚后,三个家庭立刻开始奇怪了——为什么从来没人跟他们提到过另外两个兄弟呢?——谜底在不详的氛围中逐步揭晓,问题的答案也渐渐浮现。电影追溯了当年对一家名为“路易斯·怀斯”的服务机构展开的调查,他们曾是一家知名的领养中介,专门为犹太孤儿寻找领养家庭,如今已经倒闭了。宗宗案卷和层层审讯,揭露了一项秘密进行的暗箱研究:故意把双胞胎或三胞胎分开,送到不同家庭寄养,数年后再对他们的生活状况展开仔细的审查。

 

Working with the editor Michael Harte, Wardle whips the story along at breakneck speed, stoking our sympathy with the brothers’ mounting sense of outrage and betrayal. The ironies are mind-boggling, not least the fact that the study, which Kellman likens to a Nazi experiment, was spearheaded by the late child psychiatrist Peter Neubauer, himself an Austrian Jew who had fled the Holocaust. (Wardle interviews two researchers who worked under Neubauer while the study was in progress. One comes off as sheepishly half-apologetic; the other infuriatingly chalks it up to a different era.)

配合麦克·哈特的影片剪辑,导演蒂姆·瓦德尔以迅雷不及掩耳之势将故事推向了愤怒的高潮,遭受背叛的愤慨与怒火愈积愈重,三兄弟的遭遇也激起了观众的无限同情。真相是如此讽刺,令人难以置信,尤其是那项被凯尔曼比作纳粹实验的研究,竟然是已故儿童精神病学家彼得·纽鲍尔领衔策划的,而他自己就是一个从大屠杀中劫后余生的奥地利犹太人。(瓦德尔采访了两名曾在纽鲍尔手下工作过的研究员,他们正是在这项研究暗中进行时与他共事的。其中一个在镜头的压力下勉强挤出了几分歉意,另一个则把责任推卸给了“一个不同的时代”,着实令人愤慨。)

chalk up to:to give credit to, to attribute something to something else 归因于


A many-sided rumination on psychiatric ethics, mental health and different schools of parenting, “Three Identical Strangers” is effortlessly riveting, if a bit too slick for its own good. There is something ingenious about the way Wardle uses repetition in a movie about identicality, reframing the same footage through different prisms of meaning. But there is also something self-satisfied and rather too clever about all this narrative duplicity. It doesn’t seem to be building to a grand revelation so much as delaying and obscuring something that has been apparent all along.

《孪生陌生人》毫不费力地做到了引人入胜,虽然为了收视率有太过刻意之嫌。这部纪录片对精神伦理学、心理健康学和各种流派的育儿理论展开了多面而深入的思考。瓦德尔在影片中运用了许多反复来探讨什么是相同性,同一段镜头、同一个场面,他带领观众从不同的角度去审视,相同的画面便被赋予了不同的意义,不可不谓是神来之笔。但,这种体现双重意义的叙事手段也不免有些自鸣得意、自作聪明的味道,与其说是为了一个宏大的启示而铺垫,不如说是吞吞吐吐、明知故掩,想要营造层层揭秘的感觉,但真相其实早就已经非常明显了。

slick /slɪk/ adj. skilful and effective but lacking sincerity or value

 

The documentary hides its most haunting truths in plain sight, in Wardle’s extensive on-screen conversations with Shafran and Kellman. (Galland died in 1995, and his absence is the film’s most striking structural element.) The two are interviewed separately, a pointed decision that gives the picture its distinctly melancholy undertow.

这部纪录片把刻骨铭心的真相藏在了看似普通的画面中,藏在了瓦德尔与夏弗兰和凯尔曼在荧屏上大量的对话中。(加兰德于1995年过世了,而他的缺席也是这部电影在结构上最独特的地方。)对这两人的采访是分别进行的,这一尖锐的决定也为所有的画面注入了阴沉的基调。

 

In some ways, its true subject isn’t nature or nurture but the simple reality of time and its refusal to heal all wounds. The resemblance between Shafran and Kellman is still unmistakable, even if, due to differences in their voices and physical builds, they are easier to tell apart than they once were. It’s a privilege to see them in solitude and in togetherness, individuals bound by something as ordinary as kinship and as extraordinary as circumstance, finding sorrow as well as joy in the realization that they are strangers no longer.

从某种角度说,影片的主题并非“天生基因和后天改造哪个才能决定命运”,而是随着时间流逝暴露出的直白真相,以及一些时间也无法愈合的伤痛。夏弗兰和凯尔曼在外貌上仍然难分彼此,即使因为他们嗓音和身形的不同,观众在后半部分更容易把他们区分开来了。看他们如何独处,如何共处,看到两个人是如何被血缘这跟普通的纽带和不寻常的环境遭遇绑在一起,意识到彼此不再是陌生人时涌出的欢乐与悲苦,实在是观众的荣幸。


“科学”制造:孪生陌生人


  • 本文原载于 LA Times

  • 原文链接:https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/la-et-mn-three-identical-strangers-review-20180628-story.html



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