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【Aeon】单曲循环的秘密

【Aeon】单曲循环的秘密


我们翻译这篇文章的理由


选这篇文章,因为音乐是大家生活中非常重要的组成。在我们喜欢的歌曲之中,高潮部分反复重复,自己也听了这些歌不下数十遍。探究音乐本身,世界各地的音乐都有重复的片段,那为什么音乐会被重复呢?究竟是什么让我们无法抗拒这些重复的音乐呢?这是因为重复使音乐更有代入感,使音乐的节拍相连,音调的变化使得相同的文字含义更丰富。而我们自己听到音乐时也会不自觉的吟唱,扭动起身体,敲打着节拍。循环往复,这些音乐的片段会在我们脑中不断浮现,沉浸其中。


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单曲循环的秘密


作者:Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis

译者:张力文 & 邓小雪 & 黄倩霞

校对:伍豪 & 张松

策划:何翔宇 & 伍豪


Why do we listen to our favourite music over and over again? Because repeated sounds work magic in our brains

为什么我们会反复听喜欢的音乐?因为反复出现的声音会对我们的大脑施魔法。


What is music? There’s no end to the parade of philosophers who have wondered about this, but most of us feel confident saying: ‘I know it when I hear it.’ Still, judgments of musicality are notoriously malleable. That new club tune, obnoxious at first, might become toe-tappingly likeable after a few hearings. Put the most music-apathetic individual in a household where someone is rehearsing for a contemporary music recital and they will leave whistling Ligeti. The simple act of repetition can serve as a quasi-magical agent of musicalisation. Instead of asking: ‘What is music?’ we might have an easier time asking: ‘What do we hear as music?’ And a remarkably large part of the answer appears to be: ‘I know it when I hear it again.’

什么是音乐?对此问题好奇的哲学家尚未得出答案。但我们中的大多数人会自信地说:“我一听到就知道了。”即便如此,对音乐性的判定是出了名的易受外界干扰。一首新的夜店曲子刚开始听时会让人觉得不好听,但在听了几次后会变得悦耳,让人想用手指跟着打节拍。把对音乐最不感兴趣的人放到一户有人在排练现代音乐独奏会的人家,当他们离开时可能会哼着利盖蒂(Ligeti)的曲子。简单的重复仿佛有着魔力,能够将声音音乐化。与其问“我们听音乐时听到的是什么”,倒不如问“什么是音乐”更简单一点。而对该问题的回答很可能是:“当我再次听到时我就知道了。”

obnoxious /əbˈnɑːk.ʃəs/ adj. very unpleasant or rude 可憎的,令人讨厌的;粗鲁无礼的

quasi /kweɪ.zaɪ-/ prefix used to show that something is almost, but not completely, the thing described 类似,准

Ligeti 乔治·山多尔·李盖蒂,当代古典音乐先锋派作曲家。


Psychologists have understood that people prefer things they’ve experienced before at least since Robert Zajonc first demonstrated the ‘mere exposure effect’ in the 1960s. It doesn’t matter whether those things are triangles or pictures or melodies; people report liking them more the second or third time around, even when they aren’t aware of any previous exposure. People seem to misattribute their increased perceptual fluency – their improved ability to process the triangle or the picture or the melody – not to the prior experience, but to some quality of the object itself. Instead of thinking: ‘I’ve seen that triangle before, that’s why I know it,’ they seem to think: ‘Gee, I like that triangle. It makes me feel clever.’ This effect extends to musical listening. But evidence has been accumulating that something more than the mere exposure effect governs the special role of repetition in music.

心理学家早就发现人们喜欢自己曾接触过的东西,至少在1960年代,罗伯特·扎伊翁茨(Robert Zajonc)就首次提出了“曝光效应”。不管是三角形、图片还是旋律,只要接触两三次后,人们都会表示比之前更喜欢了,哪怕自己都没有意识到曾经见过这东西。人们似乎错误地把自己感知流畅性(即他们处理三角形、图片或旋律的能力)的提高归因于事物本身具有的某些特性,而非先前的经历。他们似乎认为“哇,我喜欢这个三角形。它让我觉得自己很聪明”,而不会觉得“因为我之前看到过这个三角形,所以我才知道它”。聆听音乐时也会有这个效应。但越来越多的证据表明:曝光效应不是让“重复”在音乐中占据特殊地位的唯一因素。


To begin with, there’s the sheer amount of it. Cultures all over the world make repetitive music. The ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl at the University of Illinois counts repetitiveness among the few musical universals known to characterise music the world over. Hit songs on American radio often feature a chorus that plays several times, and people listen to these already repetitive songs many times. The musicologist David Huron at Ohio State University estimates that, during more than 90 per cent of the time spent listening to music, people are actually hearing passages that they’ve listened to before. The play counter in iTunes reveals just how frequently we listen to our favourite tracks. And if that’s not enough, tunes that get stuck in our heads seem to loop again and again. In short, repetition is a startlingly prevalent feature of music, real and imagined.

首先,所有的音乐都包含重复。音乐的重复性遍布于全世界的文化中。伊利诺伊大学的民族音乐学者布鲁诺·涅托(Bruno Nettl)认为,重复性是全世界的音乐所共享的少数几个特征之一。美国电台的大热曲目常常包含反复多次的副歌,人们会反复听这些本身就已在反复的歌曲。俄亥俄州立大学音乐学家大卫·休伦(David Huron)估计,在听音乐时,人们有90%以上的时间是在听他们已经听过的片段。iTunes的播放计数器就反映了我们是多么频繁地听自己喜欢的歌曲。如果这还不够的话,我们脑海中的旋律似乎在一遍遍循环。简而言之,不管是在现实里还是在想象中,重复都是音乐的一个极其普遍的特征。


In fact, repetition is so powerfully linked with musicality that its application can dramatically transform apparently non-musical materials into song. The psychologist Diana Deutsch, at the University of California, San Diego, discovered a particularly powerful example – the speech-to-song illusion. The illusion begins with an ordinary spoken utterance, the sentence ‘The sounds as they appear to you are not only different from those that are really present, but they sometimes behave so strangely as to seem quite impossible.’ Next, one part of this utterance – just a few words – is looped several times. Finally, the original recording is represented in its entirety, as a spoken utterance. When the listener reaches the phrase that was looped, it seems as if the speaker has broken into song, Disney-style.

事实上,重复紧紧地与音乐性相连,使用重复可以戏剧性地将明显是非音乐性的材料变成一首歌。加州大学圣迭戈分校心理学家戴安娜·多伊奇(Diana Deutsch)发现一个特别有力的例子—“把言语变成歌曲的幻觉”。这个幻觉开始于一段普通的讲话:“你所听到的不只是和实际播放的不一样,它们有时表现地十分奇怪、令人难以置信。The sounds as they appear to you are not only different from those that are really present, but they sometimes behave so strangely as to seem quite impossible.”随后,这段讲话的一部分—仅仅几个字—被重复数次。最后,录音按照原样被重新播放。当听者听到被重复的短语时,似乎说话的人好像开始以迪士尼风格歌唱。



The transformation is truly bizarre. You’d think that listening to someone speak and listening to someone sing were separate things, distinguished by the objective characteristics of the sound itself. It seems obvious: I hear someone speak when she’s speaking, and sing when she’s singing. But the speech-to-song illusion reveals that the exact same sequence of sounds can seem either like speech or like music, depending only on whether it has been repeated. Repetition can actually shift your perceptual circuitry such that the segment of sound is heard as music: not thought about as similar to music, or contemplated in reference to music, but actually experienced as if the words were being sung.

这一转变的确奇妙。你可能会认为听一个人讲话与听一个人唱歌完全是两回事,因为声音本身的客观特征不同。这似乎显而易见:当她在讲话时我听到她在说话,当她唱歌时我听到她在唱歌。但“把言语变成歌曲的幻觉”表明,完全相同的一段声音有时听起来像言语,有时又像音乐,而这只取决于它是不是被重复了。实际上,重复可以改变你的感觉回路,让你觉得你听到的声音片段是音乐:不是让你觉得像音乐、或联想到音乐,而是实际感到文字仿佛是被唱出来的。


This illusion demonstrates what it means to hear something musically. The ‘musicalisation’ shifts your attention from the meaning of the words to the contour of the passage (the patterns of high and low pitches) and its rhythms (the patterns of short and long durations), and even invites you to hum or tap along with it. In fact, part of what it means to listen to something musically is to participate imaginatively.

这一幻觉解释了音乐地听到某个东西意味着什么。“音乐化”让你从留意文字含义到注意语段声调变化(高低音调的模式)和它的节奏(时长变化的模式),甚至邀请你跟着哼唱或打拍子。事实上,音乐地听某个东西在一定程度上意味着带着想象力参与进去。


When they’re being heard as music, the two words – ‘sometimes behave’ – in Deutsch’s recording contain the next two words – ‘so strangely’ – almost inevitably within them. Try listening to the original utterance again and pausing it after the words ‘sometimes behave’: unable to resist completing the pattern, your mind automatically offers the continuation ‘so strangely’. When you hear something as music, you aren’t so much listening to as listening along with.

当Deutsch的录音被作为音乐来听时,其中的“sometimes behave”这两个词包含了接下来的两个词—“so strangely”,而后者几乎是不可避免地出现在前者中。再听一次原来的讲话,并在“sometimes behave”后面暂停,你的思维会无法不完成这个模式,并自动提供“so strangely”这一后续。当你把某个东西当音乐来听时,与其说你是在听,倒不如说你是沉浸于其中。


Repetition is the key to this participatory aspect of music. My own lab at the University of Arkansas did some research using rondos, a repetitive kind of musical composition that was particularly popular in the late 18th century. 

重复是听众能否与音乐互动的关键。我在阿肯色大学的实验室用回旋曲(在18实际晚期尤为流行的一种重复性音乐作品)做了一些实验。


In our study, people who had heard classical rondos featuring exact repetition reported more of a tendency to tap or sing along than those who had heard rondos that varied the refrain a little. Then again, classical rondos provide very little opportunity for audience participation, and it’s notable that musical situations that expressly call for broad involvement generally feature even more repetition – think of the number of times a church responsorial calls on the congregation to sing a single phrase back. Even in the many ordinary musical situations that don’t expressly call for participation (listening to the radio while driving along, for instance), people still get involved in ways that range from subtle swaying to air guitar to full-voiced singing along.

重复是听众能否与音乐互动的关键。我在阿肯色大学的实验室用回旋曲(在18实际晚期尤为流行的一种重复性音乐作品)做了一些实验。在我们的实验中有两类回旋曲,一类会对乐段进行精确的重复,而另一类则在每次重复时都作出些许改变,相较之下,前者的听众会更容易跟着打拍子或哼唱。但另一方面,古典回旋曲并没怎么给观众参与其中的机会。同时,值得注意的是,明确号召听众广泛参与的音乐场景中通常有着更多的重复,比方说,教堂答唱咏会让教徒反复唱同一片段。即使在很多不刻意邀请听众参与的普通音乐场景中(例如,开车时听广播),人们仍会以多种方式参与其中,或是轻弹空气吉他,或是跟着一起放声歌唱。


Can music exist without repetition? Well, music is not a natural object and composers are free to flout any tendency that it seems to exhibit. Indeed, over the past century, a number of composers expressly began to avoid repetitiveness in their work. In a recent study at the Music Cognition lab, we played people samples of this sort of music, written by such renowned 20th-century composers as Luciano Berio and Elliott Carter. Unbeknownst to the participants, some of these samples had been digitally altered. Segments of these excerpts, chosen only for convenience and not for aesthetic effect, had been extracted and reinserted. These altered excerpts differed from the original excerpts only in that they featured repetition.

音乐可以做到不反复么?音乐并非自然产物,作曲家也能无视当下潮流随心创作。的确,在上世纪,有些作曲家开始有意在其作品中避免进行反复。音乐认知实验室近期进行了一项研究,向人们播放了一些20世纪著名作曲家(比如卢西亚诺·贝里奥和埃略特·卡特)的乐曲样本。但听众们不知道的是,这些样本是被数码编辑过的。乐曲片段是随便节选的,并没有考虑美学效果,然后再将选段提取并重新排列。编辑后的选段与原曲的唯一区别在于不断反复。

aesthetic / iːsˈθetɪk; ɛsˋθɛtɪk/ (US also esthetic / esˈθetɪk; ɛsˋθɛtɪk/) adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (a) concerned with beauty and the appreciation of beauty 有关美的; 美学的


The altered excerpts should have been fairly cringeworthy; after all, the originals were written by some of the most celebrated composers of recent times, and the altered versions were spliced together without regard to aesthetic effect. But listeners in the study consistently rated the altered excerpts as more enjoyable, more interesting, and – most tellingly – more likely to have been composed by a human artist rather than randomly generated by a computer. The listeners in the study were college undergraduates with no special training or experience in contemporary art music.

编辑过的选段本来应该是相当令人不适的。毕竟,尽管原曲是近代最著名作曲家的作品,但已经经过了重新编排且并没考虑美学效果。然而,参与研究的听众始终认为重排的选段 “更愉悦、更有趣、更有可能是真人作曲家的作品而非由电脑随机生成的”。该项研究的听众群体主要是大学本科生,均未经过当代音乐艺术的特殊培训。


Even so, when I presented these findings at the annual meeting of the Society for Music Theory in 2011, to an audience that was uncommonly well-versed in these repertoires, some people were surprised to find that the doctored versions possessed an elevated degree of persuasiveness, even to them, and even when they knew what they were hearing. Admittedly, this study does not address the specially cultivated listening habits of the cognoscenti, but it does reveal something about the way listeners make sense of music that is new to them. Repetition serves as a handprint of human intent. A phrase that might have sounded arbitrary the first time might come to sound purposefully shaped and communicative the second.

当我在2011年音乐理论学会的年度会议上向在场听众公布这一发现时,即便参会者大多数是对音乐领域非常精通的人,即便他们都知道自己在听什么,有的人也出乎意料地觉得被编辑过的乐曲选段更吸引人。不能否认的是,尽管这项研究没能考虑行家们经过多年特殊训练所养成的音乐鉴赏习惯,但研究本身确实提出了关于听众如何将第一次听到的声音理解为音乐的全新观点。重复在人的判断过程中起了决定作用。乍听之下随意的乐句,在听第二遍之后就显得有意而为之并具有交流的特性。

cognoscenti /ˌkɔnjəuˈʃenti US ˌkɑːnjə-/ n [Date: 1700-1800; Origin: Early Italian, from Latin cognoscere; COGNITION] formal people who have special knowledge about a particular subject, especially art, literature, or food 行家


A separate study in my lab tested whether repetition could also make snippets of music sound more musical. We generated random sequences of notes and presented them to listeners in one of two conditions: original or looped. In the looped condition, the random sequence played not once but six times in a row. At the start of the study, people listened to the sequences, which played automatically, one after the other. Some were in their original form and some were looped (it varied from participant to participant which sequence was heard in what form). Later, the test subjects heard each random sequence individually – once only, without repeats – and then rated how musical it sounded.

我实验室进行的另一项研究是关于“反复能否令音乐片段听起来更像音乐”。我们随机生成了一些音符序列,并以以下两种形式之一呈现给听众:原始版或循环版。循环版是由随机序列连续播放6次。在开始阶段,人们听到的是一个接一个自动播放的音符序列,有的是原始版有的是循环版(每个参与者听到的序列形式都不一样)。随后,被试者分别听每个单独的序列,没有反复。最后再给序列的音乐性打分。


They had heard enough sequences that they all tended to blend together; they didn’t explicitly remember which segments they’d heard as loops, or even whether they’d previously heard the sequence at all. Nevertheless, they consistently found the sequences to be more musical when they’d heard them in looped form. Even without the aid of explicit memory, the repetitions of the random sequences had imbued them with a sense of musicality. No matter the constituent material, whether it’s strings of syllables or strings of pitches, it seems that the brute force of repetition can work to musicalise sequences of sounds, triggering a profound shift in the way we hear them.

被试者听了太多序列都搞混了,也没法清楚地记得哪个序列是循环的,甚至连之前是否听过也不记得。然而他们始终认为循环版的序列更像音乐。即使没有外显记忆的协助,随机重复的音符序列也能令人感到更具有音乐性。这与组成的元素无关,不论是一串音节还是一串音调,反复的节奏能令声音序列音乐化,并彻底转变了我们的听觉方式。


To get a sense of how the process works, there’s a very simple trick you can try. Ask an indulgent friend to pick a word – lollipop, for example – and keep saying it to you for a couple minutes. You will gradually experience a curious detachment between the sounds and their meaning. This is the semantic satiation effect, documented more than 100 years ago. As the word’s meaning becomes less and less accessible, aspects of the sound become oddly salient – idiosyncrasies of pronunciation, the repetition of the letter l, the abrupt end of the last syllable, for example. The simple act of repetition makes a new way of listening possible, a more direct confrontation with the sensory attributes of the word itself.

想要了解这一过程,你可以试试以下的方法。找个好基友随便说个词——比如“棒棒糖(lollipop)”,然后持续不断的对你说上几分钟。你将会逐渐体会到单词发音与其本意之间奇异地分离过程。这种语义饱和的效果在100年前就有所记载。当单词的意思变得越来越无法理解,声音部分就会古怪地凸显出来——这是发音的特性,比如不断重复的字母I,和最后一个音节的生硬结尾。简单的重复使人更加直接的面对单词本身的感官性状,从而带来全新的听觉可能性。


Anthropologists might feel that they are on familiar ground here, because it is now understood that rituals – by which I mean stereotyped sequences of actions, such as the ceremonial washing of a bowl – also harness the power of repetition to concentrate the mind on immediate sensory details rather than broader practicalities. In the case of the bowl-washing, for example, the repetition makes it clear that the washing gestures aren’t meant merely to serve a practical end, such as making the bowl clean, but should rather serve as a locus of attention in themselves.

人类学家应该对此并不陌生,因为宗教仪式——我指的是传统意义上的行为序列,比如圣杯洗礼式——也是从重复中获得力量,令精神集中在当下的感官细节,而忽略广义的实际意义。比如,在圣杯洗礼中,反复的清洗动作不仅仅是为了结束具体行为(比如把碗洗干净),而是将其本身作为注意力之所在

locus / ˈləukəs; ˋlokəs/ n (pl loci / ˈləusaɪ; ˋlosaɪ/) exact place of sth 所在地;场所。


In 2008, the psychologists Pascal Boyer and Pierre Liénard at Washington University in St Louis went so far as to claim that ritual creates a distinct attentional state in which we consider actions on a much more basic level than usual. Outside of ritual, individual gestures aren’t usually interpreted on their own terms; they are absorbed into our understanding of the larger flow of events. Ritual shifts attention from the overall pattern of events toward their component gestures. Instead of noting only that a bowl is being cleaned, the witness to a ritual might notice the acceleration of the hand across the bowl’s edge during each wiping gesture, or the way the cloth bunches and then opens as it is dragged forward and back across the surface. What’s more, the repetition of gestures makes it harder and harder to resist imaginatively modelling them, feeling how it might be to move your own hand in the same way. This is precisely the way that repetition in music works to make the nuanced, expressive elements of the sound increasingly available, and to make a participatory tendency – a tendency to move or sing along – more irresistible.

2008年,圣路易斯市华盛顿大学的两位心理学家帕斯卡·拜耶和皮埃尔·雷纳德进一步表示,仪式能令人产生一种独特的、更关注基本层面的注意模式。在仪式之外的场合,单独的行为不会以其原本的意思被解读,而是会融入我们对于事件的广泛理解。仪式则将注意力从事件的整体层面转移到各个组成部分。比如在圣杯洗礼式中,观礼者注意到的不仅仅是碗被洗干净了,还有每次手在擦至碗边缘时的加速动作,或是布条在拂过表面时先打褶再展开的样子。更有甚者,重复的行为会产生令人难以抑制地想去模仿的冲动,感觉好像你自己的手也要作出同样的动作。这与音乐的原理如出一辙,反复能将微妙而具有表现力的声音元素变得更加触手可及,从而产生参与度——让人更容易随着一起唱或一起做。


Given these similarities, it should be no surprise that many rituals actually depend on music. And music does seem to be a potently mind-expanding tool in its own right. The Swedish psychologist Alf Gabrielsson asked thousands of people to describe their most powerful experiences with music, then searched their responses for common themes. Many people reported that their peak musical experiences involved a sense of transcendence, of dissolved boundaries where they seemed to escape the limitations of their bodies and become one with the sounds they were hearing. These very deep and moving experiences can be partially explained by the shift in attention and the heightened sense of involvement brought about by repetition. Indeed, the psychologist Carlos Pereira and his colleagues at the University of Helsinki demonstrated that our brains show more activity in their emotional regions when the music we are listening to is familiar, regardless of whether or not we actually like it.

因为这些相似点,许多仪式都依靠音乐也就不奇怪了。音乐似乎是一种独立的,能让人感受强烈的有力工具。瑞典心理学家阿尔夫·加布里埃尔松采访了数千个人,问到音乐对他们产生最大影响的一次经历,接着从被访者的反应中寻找共性。许多人都说自己对音乐最极致的体验包含了一种超然,一种对边界的突破,仿佛脱离身体的束缚,随声而动。这种深层次的动态体验部分源于音乐的重复所带来的注意力转移和高度代入感。其实,赫尔辛基大学心理学家卡洛斯·佩雷拉和他的同事已经论证了,当我们听到熟悉的音乐时,不管是否喜欢,大脑中的感情区域都会更活跃。


Even involuntary repetition, quite against our own musical preferences, is powerful. This is why music that we hate but that we’ve heard again and again can sometimes engage us unwillingly; why we can find ourselves on the bus enthusiastically grooving along until we realise that we’re actually listening to We Built This City by Starship. Repeated exposure makes one sound seem to connect almost inevitably to the next, so that when we hear ‘What is love?’, ‘Baby, don’t hurt me’ immediately plays through our minds. Few spoken utterances contain this irresistible connection between one part and the next. And when we do want bits of speech to be tightly bound in this way – if we’re memorising a list of the presidents of the United States, for example – we might set it to music, and we might repeat it. Listening seems musical when the current bit of sound feels like it’s inextricably pulled to the next bit of sound. Repetition intensifies this effect.

即使是那些有悖于我们音乐审美的,不经意的重复也非常有力。这解释了为什么有时候我们不喜欢一种音乐,但听了一遍又一遍之后,有时会被不情愿地带入其中;也解释了为什么我们会突然发现自己听着星船的《我们筑造了这座城市》在公交车上律动。不断的重复让两种声音顺理成章地连在了一起,所以当我们听到“爱是什么?”的时候,脑海中会立刻浮现出“宝贝,别伤害我!”的旋律。很少有口语表达能够将两个部分如此密不可分地联系在一起。如果想让某一小段讲话紧密连接,比方说我们正在记忆美国历任总统的列表,那也许可以试试用音乐的方式把它唱出来,再不断地重复它。当两段声音听起来难分难解的时候,就会给人以音乐似的感受。重复放大了这种效果。


Can you make anything into music just by repeating it? No, there seems to be something special about sound. The few studies that have transferred musical devices, such as rhythm, repetition, and periodicity, to non-auditory domains – flashing lights, for example – suggest that the distinctive kinds of mental processing associated with music are harder to elicit when the basic material isn’t sonic.

你能仅靠重复就把所有事都变成音乐吗?不行,声音似乎是特别的存在。少量研究尝试在非声音领域,比如说用闪灯,来表现音乐中的韵律、重复、周期等。结果发现,当基本研究对象不是声波时,与音乐相连的特定的思维过程很难表露出来。



It’s also worth pointing out that there are many aspects of music not illuminated by repetition. It might be possible to transform speech into song, but a single bowed note on a violin can also sound unambiguously musical without any special assistance. Repetition can’t explain why a minor chord sounds dark or a diminished chord sounds sinister. Still, it might be able to explain why a series of these chords can come to sound rousing and inevitable.

同时还需要指出音乐仍有许多方面不依靠重复来表达。或许你可以把一篇演讲变成一首歌。但仅由小提琴单根弦发出的声音,毫无疑问,听起来就像音乐,不需要任何其它辅助。重复不能解释为什么小三和弦让人感到忧郁,或减三和弦为什么给人不详之感。但它还是可以解释,为什么一系列和弦的组合会听起来连贯、令人激动。


By tracing and retracing a path through musical space, repetition makes a sequence of sounds seem less like an objective presentation of content and more like a kind of tug that’s pulling you along. It captures sequencing circuitry that makes music feel like something you do rather than something you perceive. This sense of identification we have with music, of listening with it rather than to it, so definitional to what we think about as music, also owes a lot to repeated exposure.

通过追踪和回溯音乐空间中的某一路径,重复使得一系列声音不止是对内容的客观呈现,更像是一艘拖着你前进的船。它通过大脑的神经回路,让音乐像是你做的事情,而不是你所感知的东西。这种对音乐的认同感,身临其境的倾听而不是单纯的聆听,我们对音乐的看法的定义,也需要很大程度上归功于重复。


The stunning prevalence of repetition in music all over the world is no accident. Music didn’t acquire the property of repetitiveness because it’s less sophisticated than speech, and the 347 times that iTunes says you have listened to your favourite album isn’t evidence of some pathological compulsion – it’s just a crucial part of how music works its magic. Repetitiveness actually gives rise to the kind of listening that we think of as musical. It carves out a familiar, rewarding path in our minds, allowing us at once to anticipate and participate in each phrase as we listen. That experience of being played by the music is what creates a sense of shared subjectivity with the sound, and – when we unplug our earbuds, anyway – with each other, a transcendent connection that lasts at least as long as a favourite song.

世界各地的音乐当中都运用了重复,令人震惊但并非偶然之事。音乐不是因为比演讲简单,信息量少,才取得了重复这种特性。而 iTunes 显示你已经听过你最喜欢的专辑347次,并不是病态强迫症的证据——它只是说明了音乐是如何发挥其魔力的。重复性实际上助长了我们对于音乐的倾听。它在我们的脑海中开辟了一条熟悉而有益的道路,让我们在听的时候,能够立刻预测到并参与进每一个部分。那种被音乐播放的体验,是一种共享的主观感受,和声音,和彼此(当摘下耳机外放时),那种超然状态至少能持续一首最爱的歌的时间。


【Aeon】单曲循环的秘密

  • 本文原载于 Aeon 

  • 原文链接:https://aeon.co/essays/why-repetition-can-turn-almost-anything-into-music



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