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【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者


【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者

2017年,年仅39岁的马克龙当选法国总统,大他24岁的夫人也进入到了人们的视线中。除了他们令人难以置信的爱情故事之外,法国第一夫人布丽吉特·马克龙的笑容,沉默,家庭背景和时尚着装,也引发了人们的强烈兴趣。


布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者


【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者


作者:SOPHIE PEDDER

译者:邓小雪 张松 黄倩霞

校对:高泽 张松

策划:张松


Brigitte Macron, agent provocatrice

布丽吉特·马克龙,机构的挑战者

France’s first lady has attracted extraordinary scrutiny. Does a quiet subversive lie behind the silent smile?

法国的第一夫人已经吸引了无数审视的目光。沉默的微笑背后是否隐藏了一个颠覆性的谎言?


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There she was on the White House lawn in April, perched on heels as thin as tent pegs while her husband shovelled earth with Donald Trump. And on a trip to China earlier this year, in a crimson jacket with military-style buttons, clutching her husband’s arm. And again in St Petersburg in the spring, at his side, mute once more, wearing a sober black shift dress and cream trench coat, as the French president Emmanuel Macron chatted to Vladimir Putin. “One is there, without being there, while being there,” the former French literature teacher mused about her role as French première dame. “It’s very strange.”

4月,她踩着像帐篷钉一样细的高跟鞋走在白宫门口的草坪,与此同时,她的丈夫正在和特朗普一起铲土。今年早些时候,她身着缀有军式设计纽扣的深红色大衣,随丈夫到访中国。随后在对圣彼得堡的春季访问中,她穿着庄重的黑色直筒连衣裙和奶白色短风衣,又一次沉默地站在他身边,看着身为法国总统的丈夫马克龙与普京交谈。“她在那,又不在那。”这位前法语教师对于她法国第一夫人(文中少量法语,不影响阅读——编辑注)的身份沉思道。“这感觉很奇怪。”


Rather a lot about Brigitte Macron’s life has been very strange. A bourgeois teacher at a Jesuit high school in the provincial French town of Amiens, married to a banker and with three children, falls for a pupil in her drama class, 24 years her junior. He is banished to Paris to finish school where he begins his rise through the country’s elite institutions. But he refuses to give her up. Eventually they marry. He ends up as president of France.

布丽吉特·马克龙的人生本来就相当奇怪。身为一名普通的中产阶级教师,她在法国亚眠的一所教会高中教书,与一位银行家结婚并育有三个子女,然后在她的戏剧课上,与年轻自己24岁的学生马克龙坠入爱河。马克龙被迫来到巴黎继续完成学业,并在那里经受精英大学的教育,之后平步青云。但他没有变心,最终两人结婚。而他则成了法国的总统。


It is an improbable plot, and over the years their unusual relationship has prompted family censure, popular unease, endless speculation and malicious rumours. Perhaps the most unexpected twist has been the way that, a little over a year after her husband was elected president and at the age of 65, Madame Macron has won popular approval. She has forced the French to question what it means to be a woman and, in particular, a woman of her age. France has a complex heritage on this matter. Born in the 1950s, Brigitte Macron belongs to a generation of French women who grew up when modern notions of sex appeal were being invented in the country. France launched the bikini and Brigitte Bardot to the world. At the same time it was also pioneering feminist theory: Simone de Beauvoir’s ground-breaking work “The Second Sex” was published in 1949.

他们的故事令人难以置信,多年以来,两人不同寻常的恋情遭受了家族的谴责、公众的压力、无尽的猜测和恶毒的流言。然而在马克龙当选法国总统后的一年多时间内,时年65岁的布丽吉特就赢得了众人的认可,这时她65岁,或许这才是最难以预料的转折。她让整个法国都在思考,作为一个女人,尤其是她这个年龄的女人,究竟意味着什么。对于这个问题,法国有着复杂的传统。在布丽吉特·马克龙出生的50年代,性感作为一个现代概念被引入法国。法国也为世界带来了比基尼和碧姬·芭杜(著名法国性感女星——译者注),同时也诞生了女权主义先锋:西蒙·德·波伏娃,她的著作《第二性》于1949年问世。


Women in France today have to navigate a double expectation. The French state provides free crèches and nursery places on the assumption that young mothers quit the kitchen for the office; but society demands that they commute in six-inch heels. There has been a cultural acceptance of predatory male behaviour that outsiders find baffling, even disturbing. When the #MeToo movement spread to France last year, Bardot, now aged 83, called it “hypocritical and ridiculous”, declaring that she “found it charming when men told me that I was beautiful or I had a nice little backside”. Her views seemed shocking outside France, but many other French actresses were similarly contemptuous of what they took to be American moralising. Bardot, and others like her, set the tone for those who grew up in the 1950s, and the patriarchal codes that underwrote her success are now being challenged. So the new French first lady, whether she likes it or not, has become a focus for discussion about the way the French see women and French women see themselves, and even how the rest of the world sees France.

如今的法国女性要两方兼顾。国家提供了免费的育婴所和托儿所,希望年轻妈妈们能够不再被家事束缚、安心呆在职场。但社会却要求她们踩着6英寸的高跟鞋通勤。法国人对于具有强势的男性行为欣然接受,这种文化让外界感到难以理解甚至令人不快。去年,当#MeToo运动传到法国时,83岁的芭杜称之为“虚伪和可笑”,并表示“当男性对我说我很漂亮或者我的臀部很美的时候,我会认为他很迷人。”她的观点震惊了外界,但很多其他法国女演员对此也都嗤之以鼻,并认为这是美国式的说教。芭杜们的观点代表了成长于50年代的女性,尽管当年令她们成功的父权主义如今已经受到挑战。因此,关于法国人如何看待女性、法国女性如何看待她们自己、甚至世界如何看待法国,作为新一任的法国第一夫人,无论布丽吉特自己喜欢与否,都已经成为这场讨论的焦点。

【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者

Revolutionary road
The Macrons celebrate Bastille Day with the Trumps on the Champs-Elysées in 2017


Brigitte Macron has won admirers and managed to keep them. While the president’s approval rating sunk to 34% in August this year, down from 66% when elected, that of his wife remained at a healthy 67%. She seems to appeal in particular to the young and the over-65s. When the first lady visited a lycée in Dijon earlier this year, one observer described the reaction of the pupils as “quasi-hysterical”. Celebrity magazines have dubbed the phenomenon “Bibimania”. Only Bernadette Chirac, wife of Jacques Chirac, was a more popular first lady: she won respect as a local politician in her own right, as well as sympathy for tolerating her husband’s philandering.

布丽吉特·马克龙已经赢得并留住了很多粉丝。她丈夫的支持率已经从当选时的66%下降到今年8月的34%,而布丽吉特自己的支持率则稳定在67%的良好水平。她似乎特别吸引年轻人和65岁以上的人。当这位第一夫人参观法国第戎市的一所中学时,有人描述在场的学生们“都快激动疯了”。名人杂志把这种现象称之为“BIBI狂热”。比她更受欢迎的只有法国前总统雅克•希拉克的夫人伯纳黛特•希拉克:她作为本地政治家,以自己的方式赢得了人们的尊重,也由于容忍了丈夫的沾花惹草而获得了大众的同情。


Unlike America, the role of the French first lady comes with no particular expectation. Since 1958, when Charles de Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic, presidential spouses have shaped the role according to their interests or personalities; some have ignored it altogether. Yvonne de Gaulle wore sensible shoes, liked to sew and once washed her husband’s socks in a basin at the Elysée Palace; she scarcely said a word in public. Her successors ranged from the modern and fashion conscious (Claude Pompidou was a friend of Coco Chanel; Carla Bruni-Sarkozy a model-turned-folk-singer) to the politically militant (Danielle Mitterrand and Madame Chirac each pursued their own causes, the former without caring about clashing with her husband). Presidential couples have included the devoted, and the volatile. In 2014 François Hollande’s partner, Valérie Trierweiler, a reporter at Paris-Match magazine, had to be hospitalised after a celebrity magazine photographed the president on the back of a scooter visiting Julie Gayet, the woman he left her for soon after. It has been a while since France has had a first lady who looks remotely comfortable, let alone happy, in the role.

与美国不同,人们对于法国第一夫人的角色并没有特别的期待。自从1958年夏尔·戴高乐成立了法国第五共和国,总统夫人们根据自身爱好和性格的不同让这一角色各有千秋。有的人对此毫不在意。伊冯·戴高乐穿着舒服的鞋子,喜欢缝纫,也曾经在爱丽舍宫中为他丈夫洗袜子。她在公众面前几乎从不说话。之后的几位第一夫人们,涵盖了现代时尚名媛(克洛德•蓬皮杜是可可•香奈儿的朋友;卡拉•布鲁尼•萨科齐从模特转型成了民谣歌手)到政治激进分子(丹尼尔·密特朗和希拉克夫人都追求着自己的事业,前者甚至不惜与她的丈夫对峙)。总统夫妇间不只有忠诚,还会有波折。2014年,弗朗索瓦·奥朗德被一家名人杂志拍到坐在小摩托车后座偷会情人茱莉·嘉叶(之后不久他就为了嘉叶跟夫人分手了),他的夫人瓦莱丽·特里耶维勒(她是《巴黎竞赛报》的记者)随后被发现送往医院就医。这已经不是法国第一位郁郁寡欢的第一夫人了。


In some ways, the Macrons fit a global trend rather than a French one. Political wives have not traditionally been considered an electoral asset, tending to shy away from the limelight during a campaign. In 2007 the French were taken aback – but also intrigued – when Nicolas Sarkozy imported American-style campaigning, posing with his then-wife, Cécilia, as part of his bid for the presidency.

在某种层面上说,马克龙夫妇顺应了世界潮流,而非法国潮流。传统上,政治家的妻子不算是竞选卖点,在竞选活动中通常都会远离公众视野。然而2007年,当尼古拉·萨科齐模仿美国模式参加竞选,携希西莉亚(也就是后来的妻子)为自己拉票时,法国人既惊讶又觉得有趣。


Brigitte was a central element of the image her husband projected as a candidate. She was at his side on stage on the evening of the first-round results when he topped voting, clutching his hand, beaming and sharing his success. Nobody expects a French political spouse to reveal their baking secrets, as Hillary Clinton was encouraged to do in 1992 to establish her credentials as a dutiful wife. But in France, like America and China, personality politics have become increasingly dominant. That has turned the wives of presidents into an essential part of the act.

布丽吉特是马克龙作为候选人参选的核心要素。在第一轮结果公布的晚上,她站在丈夫身边,在他得票遥遥领先时握住他的手、欢呼并分享他的成功。没人指望法国的政治家夫妇公开他们的烘焙秘方,尽管有人建议希拉里·克林顿在1992年总统竞选时用这一招来打造其贤妻良母的形象。但是正如美国和中国一样,政治人格(即体现政治家个人特点)在法国也变得越来越重要,这也令总统夫人们成为政坛的基本组成部分。


For Brigitte Macron, with her honey-blonde bob and Ultrabrite smile, the electoral campaign was a crash course in public life. Four years ago, she was still teaching at a private Catholic lycée in the swanky 16th arrondissement of Paris. Her husband’s astonishing rise to the presidency last year, backed by a party he created only 13 months previously, forced her to learn quickly how to live within the unforgiving strictures of public life. An independent-minded woman, who is, as she puts it, “no vase of flowers”, Brigitte has had to adapt to existing in the shadow of her husband, visible and scrutinised, but silent.

对于一头金色短发、笑容满面的布丽吉特·马克龙来说,这场竞选活动是其走入公众生活的速成课。四年前,她还在繁华的巴黎16一所天主教私立中学教书。她丈夫13个月前创立的政党迅速崛起,并在去年出乎意料地将马克龙推上总统宝座,这一切都迫使布丽吉特快速适应严苛的公众生活。作为一位思想独立的女性,用她自己的话来说“我不是花瓶”,她不得不沉默地生活在丈夫的阴影之下,接受众人的注目和审视。


Since moving into the Elysée Palace, where the first couple live, Brigitte has spoken very little in public about the role. “I don’t feel like a first lady,” she told Ellemagazine last year, considering the term to be merely “the translation of an American expression”. She understands the limits to her legitimacy: “The French elected Emmanuel, not me.” When Emmanuel last year established a charter to clarify the role of presidential spouse as an official position – after suggestions that the role be formalised proved deeply unpopular – the idea, say her staff, was to make her purpose unambiguous and her budget transparent. The president’s partner, the charter states, is there to “represent France” and support charitable or cultural events that contribute to promoting the country; she receives no clothes budget and has only two staff members. Brigitte borrows items from French fashion houses and sees her design choices as a way to promote French créateurs. On occasion, she can still be spotted out and about in Paris on evening walks, her advisers by her side, a cap pulled down over her forehead. She refuses to be shut away without any outside contact. 

自从搬进总统居住的爱丽舍宫后,布丽吉特鲜少公开谈论第一夫人的角色。“我不觉得自己像第一夫人,这只不过是美式英语的翻译而已。”去年她在接受《ELLE》杂志采访时说道。她明白第一夫人的局限性:“法国人民选择的是我丈夫,而不是我。”埃马纽埃尔(法国总统马克龙的名,下同——编辑注)去年设立章程正式将总统配偶列为一个官方职位——尽管有证据表明这一做法很不受欢迎,在此之后,布丽吉特的工作人员表示,第一夫人的目标和预算情况都要公开透明。根据这份章程,总统的配偶代表了“法国”,并要致力于慈善事业或文化活动,提升国家形象。她没有任何服装预算,工作人员也只有两名。布丽吉特从法国时装公司借衣饰使用,并以此作为推广法国设计的一种方式。在巴黎,偶尔也有人看到她晚上外出,压低帽子遮住半边脸,身边跟着她的顾问。她拒绝与外界隔离。


In public, she stands dutifully by her husband’s side, but she has also made it clear that she refuses to walk a step behind him.

在公开场合,她恭敬地站在丈夫的一边,但她也明确表示,她拒绝走在他后面一步。


The couple can scarcely complain about the scrutiny their relationship has drawn. During the election campaign, they enthusiastically displayed their private life, sitting side by side on a chairlift in a ski resort in the Pyrenees, and wandering hand in hand through the dunes on the northern French coast. The Macrons hired a well-known French publicist, Mimi Marchand, to sculpt their image and handle the paparazzi. Emmanuel’s public profile made their marriage the subject of perpetual fascination and disbelief, and he accepted the need to put his private life on display as a cold transactional deal. “I sell. Like washing powder. Nothing more,” he once commented. Nonetheless it was not quite what Brigitte had bargained for when she first welcomed a teenager with a shock of wavy hair into her drama club.

这对夫妇几乎不怎么因他们的关系遭到围观而抱怨。在竞选活动中,他们热情地展示自己的私生活,并排坐在比利牛斯山脉滑雪胜地的椅子上,手牵着手在法国北部海岸的沙丘上漫步。马克龙雇佣了一位著名的法国公关员,咪咪·马尚来塑造他们的形象和应对狗仔队。埃马纽埃尔的公开形象使他们的婚姻成为永恒的富有吸引力和不信任的主题,他公开自己的私生活,并冷冰冰地将此视为一次交易的必要条件。 “我卖。就像洗衣粉一样。 没什么了,”他曾经评论道。尽管如此,当布丽吉特第一次在她的戏剧俱乐部里欢迎一个头发蓬乱的少年时,她并没有料到这一点。


Brigitte Marie-Claude Trogneux was born in 1953 into the fifth generation of a family of chocolate-makers in Amiens. Their flagship boutique still lies on the rue Delambre in the town centre. It was a comfortable bourgeois life in a conservative France that was still more than a decade away from the social upheavals of May 1968. The young Brigitte’s father was director of the local tennis club and became president of the Picardy Tennis League. The family voted for centre-right candidates; they spent weekends at their villa in Le Touquet, a seaside town near Calais with a golf course and tennis club, and the resort of choice for the northern bourgeoisie.

布丽吉特·玛丽-克劳德·托尼厄于1953年出生,是Amiens巧克力生产商家族的第五代成员。他们的旗舰店仍然坐落在市中心的德拉姆布尔街。当时,在保守的法国,他们过着舒适的资产阶级生活。,彼时距离1968年5月的社会动荡还有十多年的时间。布丽吉特年轻的父亲是当地网球俱乐部的主管,也是皮卡迪网球联盟的主席。他们投票支持中右翼候选人; 他们周末在勒图凯的别墅度过,勒图凯是加莱附近的海滨小镇,有高尔夫球场和网球俱乐部,是北方资产阶级的选择之地。


Though Brigitte is the elder half in her relationship, the key to understanding her, says a friend, is that she was the baby of her own family. The youngest of six children, Brigitte was 20 years younger than her eldest sibling, Jean-Claude. As a result, her school friend Béatrice Leroux told Maëlle Brun, a biographer, “she enjoyed great freedom. This came out notably in the tone she adopted with her father…There was between them a form of camaraderie to which he never took offence. On the contrary, he was amused by it and never put her in her place.”

一位朋友说,虽然布丽吉特在她自己的恋爱关系中是年长的那一个,但要想真正了解她,就要从“她是家里最小的孩子”开始。。布里奇特是六个孩子中最小的一个,比她的大哥哥让-克劳德小20岁。因此,她的学校朋友碧翠丝·乐鲁告诉传记作者玛埃丽·布汉,”她有着极大的自由。这一点在她和她父亲的谈话中表现得尤为突出。他们之间有一种友谊的形式,他从不感觉受到冒犯,反倒会被逗乐,从来没有把布丽吉特放在她的位置上。”


The teenage Brigitte did well at school and gained a mention très bien (distinction) in the baccalauréat, the French school-leavers’ certificate. In Brun’s account, her parents generously rewarded her good grades, at one point giving her a Piaggio scooter. The young Brigitte pinned Clint Eastwood posters on her bedroom walls and at weekends swapped her Catholic school’s dowdy uniform for the latest miniskirts. “I wasn’t a very well-behaved girl,” Brigitte told Elle. “I was often in detention for impertinence.” Although she describes herself today as a natural optimist, her youth was not all carefree insouciance. Her pregnant elder sister was killed with her husband in a car crash when Brigitte was aged eight, and her six-year-old niece died the following year. Brigitte has spoken on occasion of how she constantly senses mortality around her, and has long suffered from a “terror of death”.

十几岁的布丽吉特在学校表现很好,并在法国学校离校证书baccalauréat中获得了tès bien(优异)的嘉奖。在布汉的描述中,布丽吉特的父母慷慨地奖励她取得的好成绩,一度给她一个皮亚吉奥牌小摩托。年轻的布丽吉特把克林特·伊斯特伍德(美国影星——译者注)的海报贴在她的卧室墙上,并在周末把天主教学校的过时制服换成最新的迷你裙。 “我不是一个很守规矩的女孩,”布丽吉特告诉Elle。 “我经常因为无礼而被留校。”尽管她把自己描述成一个天生的乐观主义者,但她的青春并不完全是无忧无虑的。布丽吉特8岁时,她怀孕的姐姐和丈夫一起在车祸中丧生,她6岁的侄女在第二年去世。布里吉特在谈到她如何不断感知周围的死亡时说,她长期遭受着”死亡的恐惧”。


Emmanuel’s family too knew death early – his parent’s first child was still-born – but her more earnest husband had a very different childhood to that of Brigitte. The young Emmanuel, who grew up on a terraced street in the same neighbourhood of Amiens, shied away from boums, or early-adolescent parties, preferring “piano and literature” and “time with my grandmother”. Emmanuel’s teachers recall a pupil who spoke to them as equals and was mature beyond his years. “Emmanuel wasn’t cool,” one of his school friends told me. Indeed, in some ways, Brigitte appears to be the younger spirit in their relationship. She is the one who sports above-the-knee dresses and the latest Louis Vuitton outfits while he, off-duty, wears unfashionably cut jeans and démodé roll-neck jumpers. In June, when the Elysée opened its doors to a DJ, she was twisting to the beat in the palace courtyard while her husband swayed hesitantly by her side. “He married a troublemaker,” she once said, “knowingly.”

艾玛纽埃尔的家人也早早就知道死亡–他父母的第一个孩子胎死腹中—比起布丽吉特的童年,她这位认真的丈夫的童年截然不同。埃马纽埃尔年轻时在Amiens附近的一条连排房子的街道上长大,因为害羞躲避了舞会和青春期早期时的聚会,喜欢”钢琴和文学”,还喜欢”和祖母呆在一起”。埃马纽埃尔的老师回忆起他,是一个跟他们讲起话来像有平等关系一样的学生,比实际年龄要成熟。 “埃马纽埃尔并不酷,”他的一位同学告诉我。事实上,在某些方面,布丽吉特似乎是他们关系中更年轻的那一个。她会穿露到膝盖以上的裙子和最新的路易斯威登的服装,而他下班时会穿着过时剪裁的牛仔裤和迪莫德高领套头衫。在六月份爱丽舍宫向DJ敞开大门时,她在宫殿的院子里跟着节拍扭动,而她的丈夫则在她身边犹豫地摇摆着。 “他娶了一个捣蛋鬼,”她曾经说,”明知故犯。”


【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者


The story of their improbable liaison is now familiar. At the age of 15, Emmanuel Macron joined the after-school theatre club run by Madame Auzière, and played the part of a scarecrow in the school’s adaptation of “La Comédie du langage”, an absurdist work by Jean Tardieu. In the following year, Emmanuel’s penultimate at school, the group put on “L’Art de la comédie”, by Eduardo de Filippo, a play that explores the boundaries between art, theatre and politics. Since there weren’t enough parts for all the pupils, the teenage Emmanuel suggested to his theatre teacher that they write in some new roles and adapt the play together. “The writing brought us together every Friday, and created an incredible proximity,” Brigitte later told Paris-Match. “I felt myself sliding; he did too.” Despite the efforts of the teenager’s parents to keep them apart, by exiling him to an elite state lycée in Paris to finish his schooling, the pupil insisted that he would be back one day to marry her. And so he did.

他们之间不可思议的故事现在已经耳熟能详了。15岁的埃马纽埃尔·马克龙加入了奥齐亚女士管理的课后戏剧俱乐部,并在学校改编的《语言的喜剧》中扮演了稻草人的角色,该剧是让·塔蒂埃所著的荒诞剧。第二年,也是马克龙在学校的倒数第二年,剧团上演了由Eduardo de Filippo创作的”喜剧的艺术”,这是一部探索艺术、戏剧和政治之间界限的戏剧。由于没有足够的角色给所有的学生,埃马纽埃尔向他的戏剧老师建议让他们写一些新的角色并一起改编。布丽吉特后来对《巴黎竞赛报》说:”写作让我们每个星期五都在一起,创造了一个难以置信的亲近。” “我感到自己在滑向他,他也有这种感觉。”尽管青少年马克龙的父母努力让他们分开,把他赶到巴黎的一个精英国家国立中学完成他的学业,但马克龙坚持说他有一天会回来和她结婚。他也是这么做的。


The story of their liaison came out as Emmanuel’s political career got going. “In a relationship with his ex-teacher! She’s 20 years older!” screeched the headline of Closer, a French gossip magazine in 2014, shortly after Emmanuel was appointed economy minister in President Hollande’s Socialist government. For many years before their marriage in 2007, the Macrons had faced the censure of provincial Amiens. The celebrity press turned up the pitch. By the time her husband announced his bid for the presidency in late 2016, Brigitte was mocked as a wannabe “first grandmother” (Sébastien, her elder son, is two years older than her husband). Bourgeois Paris frowned at her short hem length. For months, a rumour circulated in Paris that their marriage was a sham, cover for Emmanuel’s secret gay life. Emmanuel realised that he had to puncture the rumour when his press attaché told him that her hair stylist had declared that it was the reason he would never be elected president. Mid-campaign Macron went public, mocking the idea that he had a body double who led a secret gay life. The rumours were odious on two counts, he went on to tell TÊTU, a gay magazine: the homophobia behind the assumption that a gay man could not be elected president; and the misogyny underlying the idea that a man who lives with a woman 24 years older than him could only be “either gay or a closet gigolo”. No sooner had her husband stepped in to the presidency than Brigitte had to endure Donald Trump commenting to Emmanuel in front of the cameras on a visit to France: “She’s in such good physical shape.”

当埃马纽埃尔的政治生涯开始的时候,他们的私通的故事就浮出水面了。2014年,在埃马纽埃尔被任命为总统奥朗德的社会党政府的经济部长后不久, 法国八卦杂志《Closer》的头条就惊呼“在和他的前任老师谈恋爱!她比他大20岁!”在2007年结婚前的许多年里,马克龙夫妇一直面对着阿米恩省人的责难。名人报刊更是加大了火力。当她的丈夫在2016年底宣布竞选总统时,布丽吉特被戏称为”第一祖母”(她的长子塞巴斯蒂安比她的丈夫大两岁)。《巴黎中产阶级》对她的短裙沿发表不满。一则谣言在巴黎流传了几个月之久,说他们的婚姻是假的,是掩盖了埃马纽埃尔秘密的同性恋生活。当埃马纽埃尔的新闻助理告诉他“她的发型师宣称这则新闻会让他永远不会当选总统时,他不得不打破这个谣言。中期竞选时,马克龙进行了公开,对他过着一面是秘密同性恋的双重生活的想法发表了嘲笑。他接着对同性恋杂志《TÊTU》说:谣言在两个方面是可憎的,一是同性恋男不能当选总统这一预设想法的背后是同性恋恐惧症;另一个是与一个比他大24岁的女人生活在一起的男人只能是”同性恋或者是个隐秘的小白脸“。她的丈夫刚登上总统宝座,布丽吉特就不得不忍受唐纳德·特朗普在镜头前对埃马纽埃尔说:”她身材可真好啊。”


By and large, the French have since come to accept this unusual relationship and even respect it. More importantly, for many French women, it serves as an antidote to the patriarchal social and political codes that had long made it acceptable for male French politicians to be accompanied by women half their age, but not the other way round. The age gap between the Macrons, after all, is the same as that between Donald and Melania Trump, and not much greater than the 18 years that separate Hollande and Gayet. “She made this age gap a strength,” Philippe Besson, a novelist, told French radio. “Suddenly, a woman over 60 was no longer condemned to invisibility.” Not that everyone embraced the relationship. In a documentary earlier this year Catherine Nay, a French writer, commented that it “was perfectly incomprehensible for many men, and perfectly gratifying for women”.

总的来说,法国人已经开始接受这种不寻常的关系,甚至尊重它。更重要的是,对许多法国妇女来说,它是父权社会和政治准则的解药,长期以来,人们认为法国男政客们身边伴随着年龄只有他们一半的女人是可接受的,反过来就不行。毕竟,马克龙夫妇的年龄差距和唐纳德·特朗普和梅兰尼亚·特朗普之间的差距是一样的,也不比奥朗德和盖耶特的18年差距大很多。 “她使这个年龄的差距成为一种力量,”小说家菲利普·贝松向法国电台说。 “突然间,一个60岁以上的女人不再被视为隐形人。”并不是每个人都喜欢这种关系。在今年早些时候的一部纪录片中,法国作家凯瑟琳·奈评论说,这”对许多男人来说,这是无法理解的,对女人来说,则是完全令人满意的”。


The need to defy stereotypes about age is particularly pressing in a country such as France. In its commercial and cinematic culture, on advertising billboards and in the plethora of anti-ageing skincare products which its globally successful cosmetics firms turn out, the country’s celebration of female youthfulness is particularly pervasive. So Brigitte Macron, with her loathing of age-appropriate floral prints, has liberated women of a certain age to be themselves, wear what they want and defy social pressures. “Of course, we have breakfast together, me with my wrinkles, him with his fresh face, but that’s how it is,” Brigitte has joked. There is something refreshingly rebellious about her that appeals to the subversive French spirit.

在法国这样的国家,打破对于年龄的刻板印象尤为迫切。 从法国的商业和电影文化,广告牌以及化妆品公司推出的众多在全球范围大获成功抗衰老护肤产品中,都不难看出法国对女性的青春执迷。 因此,布丽吉特·马克龙反对女性应当做符合自己年龄的事这类的陈腔滥调,解放了年龄对于女性的限制,让她们按照自己的喜好穿着,藐视社会压力。 “当然,我们一起吃早餐,我脸上带着皱纹,他则容光焕发,但这样有何不可。”布里吉特开玩笑说。 在她的身上,有一种令人耳目一新的反叛,唤醒着法国精神中的颠覆性。


Yet though the French first lady has been progressive about relationships and ageing, she is doing far less to reshape other stereotypes about women. Some observers suggest that Brigitte has turned into a model for a new sort of modern French woman. Marlène Schiappa, a feminist former blogger who now serves as junior minister for equality in Emmanuel’s government, has even compared her to Simone de Beauvoir. Yet Brigitte’s few comments on women’s rights have been strikingly mundane. “I think that the 21st century will be feminine, that it’s women who will, perhaps, find a way out for this world,” she once said, cryptically. “If that’s being feminist, then I am one, but with men not against them.” That distinction appeared to reflect the limits to which she was prepared to push her views.

尽管这位法国第一夫人对伴侣关系和年龄的意识进步,但对打破其他关于女性的陈规定型为之甚少。 一些观察者认为,布丽吉特·马克龙已经成为新现代法国女性的典范。 席亚帕之前是一位女性主义博主,现在担任马克龙政府的平等部长,她甚至将布丽吉特·马克龙与西蒙娜·德·波伏娃进行了比较。 然而,布丽吉特·马克龙关于妇女权利的不多的评论明显的平庸。 “我认为21世纪将会是女性的,也许女性会为这个世界找到出路,”她曾经隐晦地说过。 “如果说有女权主义者,那么我就是其中之一,但是是和男性合作而不是对抗。”这种区别似乎反映了她准备将自己的观点推至何处。


Brigitte has helped to shape the feminist agenda of her husband. He declared last year that France was “sick with sexism”. Women make up half the ministers in his government. Brigitte is also close to Schiappa, who recently introduced a law against sexual harassment in the street. Yet Brigitte has refrained from publicly commenting on more delicate matters such as the #MeToo movement. As revelations about Hollywood reached France under the hashtag #BalanceTonPorc – out your pig – Brigitte said only that “I am very happy that women are speaking out. Maybe this will be a blessing in disguise.” She has since remained silent.

布丽吉特帮马克龙搭建起了女权主义议题的框架。去年,马克龙称法国患有“性别歧视”的病症。马克龙政府一半的部长是女性。布丽吉特也与席亚帕关系密切,席亚帕最近推出了一条法律禁止街头性骚扰。然而,布丽吉特很少公开评论诸如#MeToo运动等更需要谨慎对待的问题。随着好莱坞的曝光运动传到了法国,#MeToo在法国化作了#BalanceTonPorc(直译为:揭发你的猪),布里吉特只说“我很高兴女性在发声。也许这将是因祸得福。”此后她一直保持沉默。


The paradox is that, in so far as Brigitte has helped to defy patriarchal French assumptions, she has done so with a thoroughly conventional approach: her look and the relationship she has with her husband. She came of age during the women’s-rights movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, when it was hard enough for mothers of young children to escape the kitchen for paid work. Brigitte was the first in her family to go to university – her elder siblings either joined the family business, or married well – and had a professional career as a teacher. Yet she also quit her job in favour of her husband’s political ambitions a year after he became economy minister, and has since then played the dutifully supportive spouse.

矛盾的是,为了对抗男性主导的法国社会,布丽吉特采用了一种完全传统的做法:她的外表和她与丈夫的关系。20世纪60年代末和70年代的妇女权利运动时,她正好成年。那时,拥有幼儿的母亲很难走出厨房去从事有报酬的工作。布丽吉特是家中第一个上大学的人 – 她的哥哥姐姐要么加入家族企业,要么婚姻美满 – 从事一份教师的工作。然而,在马克龙成为经济部长一年后,她也放弃了自己的工作,转而支持丈夫的政治宏图,从那时起,她就一直尽职尽责地扮演着贤内助的角色 。


When her husband was at the Finance Ministry, Brigitte organised numerous dinners and encouraged him to network with celebrities, a world to which she seems particularly drawn. Indeed, some of her critics consider her to be the ambitious driving force behind him. Brigitte once declared, after all, that she encouraged him to run for the highest office in 2017 because, as she put it, “imagine what my face would look like” if he had waited another five years. Back in 1989 when living in Alsace, she even stood herself – unsuccessfully – for election as an independent municipal councillor. Since moving into the Elysée Palace, Brigitte’s public appearances have been highly conventional: playing hostess or picking out modern tapestries from the national collections. “She embodies an extremely traditional representation of the role of women,” says Frédé-rique Matonti, a political scientist at the Sorbonne who has published a book on sexism and politics: “That of women who know their place and help their husbands.”

马克龙在财政部时,布丽吉特组织了许多晚宴并鼓励他与名人交往,名人圈子对她来说具有特别的吸引力。事实上,布丽吉特的一些批评者认为她是马克龙野心的助推者。毕竟,她曾经宣称,她鼓励马克龙在2017年竞选法国总统,因为正如她所说的那样,如果马克龙再等五年,“想象一下我的脸会是什么样子”。早在1989年,当她在阿尔萨斯时,就作为一名独立的市政议员参与竞选,但没有成功。自从搬进爱丽舍宫后,布丽吉特的公开露面一直非常传统:扮演着女主人或是从国家收藏中挑出现代的壁毯。 “她是女性传统角色生动的代表,”索邦大学政治学家弗雷德里克·马托蒂出版了一本关于性别歧视和政治的书,她说:“布丽吉特是一名知道自己的位置并懂得如何帮助丈夫的女性。”


In the run-up to the election, Brigitte primarily influenced the candidate’s style, diet and diary management rather than policy. She regularly sat in on campaign meetings with the inner circle. But Emmanuel, who has the cast-iron self-belief of a philosophy graduate who also studied at the elite Ecole Nationale d’Administration, was not a candidate who needed much help with ideas, guiding principles or inspiration. In one telling moment during the campaign, captured in a documentary, Emmanuel steps onto the stage in an empty hall to rehearse a speech. Dressed in an open-necked shirt and suit, a microphone clipped to his lapel, he is preparing for an election rally. In the front row sits an attentive Brigitte in a pair of skinny jeans, her hair swept back, glasses perched on her nose, her brow furrowed. Two seats away from her sits one of Emmanuel’s closest politi-cal advisers. The instant Emmanuel finishes his trial run, with a cry of “Vive la République! Vive la France!”, his wife leaps to her feet. “Raise your voice”, she scolds, “it keeps falling,” before turning her back, with a hint of impatience, to sit down for another take. What is arresting about this scene is not just the central place that Brigitte occupies in coaching the candidate’s delivery. It is also the hint of the drama teacher and her pupil, the relationship that launched their liaison, revived through the theatrical drama of an election campaign. Emmanuel is not the creation of his former drama teacher. But her supporting role goes beyond the merely decorative.

在选举期间,布丽吉特主要影响马克龙的风格,饮食和日记管理,而不是政策。她经常与核心圈一起参加竞选活动。但是,马克龙作为法国国立行政学院的哲学毕业生,充满了自信,他不是一个需要在思想,指导原则或灵感方面需要很多帮助的候选人。一部纪录片记录了竞选期间的一个重要时刻,马克龙在一个空荡荡的大厅里走上舞台,排练演讲。他穿着开领衬衫和西装,翻领上夹着麦克风,准备参加选举集会。在前排坐着的布丽吉特穿着一条紧身牛仔裤,她的头发向后扫过,鼻梁上架着眼镜,眉毛皱起。她的两个座位外,坐着马克龙最亲近的政治顾问。着急的马克龙用一声高呼“共和国万岁!法国万岁!”来结束他的竞选排练,他的妻子跳了起来。 “抬高你的声音”,她训斥道,“你的声音越来越小了”,然后带着一丝不耐烦地转过身来,坐下来接受另一次常识。在这一幕中,引人注意的不仅仅是布丽吉特占据了指导竞选者演讲的中央位置,还有在竞选活动中重新上演的师生关系的迹象,戏剧老师和学生的关系正是他们感情的起点。今日的马克龙并非由他先前的喜剧老师,布里吉特所创造,但是布丽吉特的作用确实是实实在在的。


【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者

Team player

With France’s World Cup-winning footballers in 2018


Half a century after the May 1968 uprising, a rebellion against the conservative social mores that put France at the forefront of the women’s liberation movement, women today are still fighting some of their grandmothers’ battles. A younger generation of French women will not tolerate what Bardot considers to be a charming part of French culture. Last year 16,400 rapes were reported and there was a 10% jump in reports of sexual assault. Such is the concern that the mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, recently ran an anti-harassment awareness campaign with the slogan “Ma jupe n’est pas une invitation” (My skirt is not an invitation). French apps have sprung up that witnesses can use to denounce inappro-priate behaviour. Hundreds of thousands have rallied to #BalanceTon-Porc.

在1968年5月起义后的半个世纪里,那场将法国推至妇女解放运动前沿,反对保守社会习俗的运动之后,时至今日,法国的女性仍在重复她们祖辈的女权斗争。 年轻一代的法国女性不会容忍布丽吉特所认为法国文化迷人的部分。 据报道,去年有16,400起强奸事件,性侵犯增加了10%。巴黎市长安妮·伊达尔戈最近开展了一场反骚扰宣传运动,其口号是“我的裙子不是邀请函”。 发现不当行为后,目击者可以用于曝光的应用程序在法国如雨后春笋般出现。 成千上万的人参与到#BalanceTonPorc运动当中。


Brigitte is not publicly part of that movement. Her teenage rebellion seems to have involved the frisson of wearing a mini-skirt rather than up-turning underlying social expectations. Though she has rebelled against age conventions, French people seem to relate to Brigitte, a mother of three adult children and a grandmother of seven, as a maternal figure and former teacher rather than a pioneering feminist. Her declared passion for the country’s great writers – her favourites include Flaubert, Rimbaud, Baudelaire and Maupassant – helps to fill out the two-dimensional part she sometimes seems obliged to play. Every day she receives around 200 letters or emails – far more than her predecessors – and they often consist of appeals for help or advice, many relating to education or children’s welfare. Most weeks Brigitte visits a classroom, a hospital ward or a welfare centre, the vast majority of these trips without reporters in tow.

布丽吉特并没有公开参与该运动。 她青少年的那场女权运动似乎涉及到只有穿着迷你裙的兴奋战栗,而不是提高潜在的社会期望。 虽然她反对年龄的陈规,但法国人对布丽吉特,这个三个成年子女的母亲和七个孩子的祖母,大多将她视为一个母性的角色和马克龙的前任教师,而不是一个开创性的女权主义者。 她曾表达过对这个国家的伟大作家的热爱 – 她最喜欢的作品包括福楼拜,兰波,波德莱尔和莫泊桑 – 有助于她更好的担起有时不得不扮演的双重角色。 她每天收到大约200封信件或电子邮件 – 远远超过之前的法国第一夫人 – 有些是寻求帮助的信件或建议,其中许多与教育或儿童福利有关。 大多数时候,布丽吉特会去教室,医院病房或福利中心,大部分时间都没有记者跟随。


The next four years, under the youngest president France has known in modern times, will be judged on what Emmanuel achieves. But his ability to carry the country with him through difficult times will also depend on the way he embodies the presidency and handles the grandiose “Jupiterian” style he has sought to impose. In this respect, Brigitte Macron will have to navigate a fine line between acting as public consort to a monarchical-style president, and avoiding any sense of entitlement as an unelected spouse that angers voters. She has little choice, as she says, but to continue to be both there and not there.

未来的四年,在马克龙法国这位历史上最年轻总统的领导下,能达成什么样的成就有待评判。 但是,如何在困难时期领导法国也将取决于他怎么去做这个总统,怎么去实现他期望实行的宏伟的“朱庇特式”(拥有某种手相的人,被认为是有抱负,有领导力——编辑注)风格。 在这方面,布丽吉特·马克龙将不得不在成为公开的君主式总统配偶,和避免任何形式的权力(因她作为一名未被选举的政治人物,滥用权力会激怒选民)中小心翼翼地辨识自己的方向。 正如她所说,她别无选择,只能继续在那里,又不在那里。❑


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【1843】布丽吉特·马克龙,颠覆者


<原文地址:https://www.1843magazine.com/features/brigitte-macron-agent-provocatrice>

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