Skip to content

【Aeon】喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋

【Aeon】喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋


人们在社交媒体上发布的内容往往是自身精神状态的无意识反映。但喜欢使用社交媒体、喜欢分享生活状态就是自恋的表现吗?古人鱼雁传书,纸短情长,那些私密的话语也并非全然隐私。用文字、影像等记录下的生命,其意义早已超越了自身生命的范畴,而是一种分享人生经历、记录时代轨迹的方式。你,是一个喜欢分享生活的人吗?


喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋

【Aeon】喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋

译者:刘璠

校对:刘蕊

策划:刘璠


The urge to share news of our lives is neither new nor narcissistic

喜欢分享生活不是新鲜事,也并非源于自恋


本文选自 Aeon | 取经号原创翻译

关注 取经号,回复关键词“外刊”

获取《经济学人》等原版外刊获得方法


Narcissism is defined as excessive self-love or self-centredness. In Greek mythology, Narcissus fell in love when he saw his reflection in water: he gazed so long, he eventually died. Today, the quintessential image is not someone staring at his reflection but into his mobile phone. While we pine away for that perfect Snapchat filter or track our likes on Instagram, the mobile phone has become a vortex of social media that sucks us in and feeds our narcissistic tendencies. Or so it would seem.

自恋往往被定义为过度自爱和以自我为中心。在希腊神话中,纳西塞斯对自己水中的倒影一见倾心,终因过度迷恋而枯坐在湖边死去。如今,自恋的代表场景不是人们凝视着自己的倒影,而是凝视着自己的手机。当我们为了选择完美的snapchat滤镜而焦虑的时候,或者当我们关注着自己在instagram上的点赞数的时候,显然我们已经被手机卷入了社交媒体的漩涡,以此来满足我们天生的自恋偏好。或者说,看上去是这么一回事。

quintessential /ˌkwɪntəˈsenʃəl◂, ˌkwɪntɪˈsenʃəl◂/ adj. being a perfect example of a particular type of person or thing 典型的;典范的

vortex /ˈvɔ:teks; NAmE ˈvɔ:rt-/ noun (pl. vor∙texes or vor∙ti∙ces /-tɪsi:z/) (literary) a very powerful feeling or situation that you cannot avoid or escape from 感情(或局势)的漩涡


But people have long used media to see reflections of themselves. Long before mobile phones or even photography, diaries were kept as a way to understand oneself and the world one inhabits. In the 18th and 19th centuries, as secular diaries became more popular, middle-class New Englanders, particularly white women, wrote about their everyday lives and the world around them. These diaries were not a place into which they poured their innermost thoughts and desires, but rather a place to chronicle the social world around them – what’s going on around the house, what they did today, who came to visit, who was born or who died. The diaries captured the everyday routines of mid-19th-century life, with women diarists in particular focused not on themselves but on their families and their communities more broadly.

人类通过媒介反观自己的行为古已有之。早在手机,甚至是照相技术出现之前,日记就是一种人们用来理解自身和其所置身的世界的方式。在18和19世纪,当世俗日记开始日渐风靡,中产阶级的新英格兰人,特别是白人女性,通过日记记录下日常生活和周遭的世界。这些日记并不是她们倾诉自身深处思想和欲望的场所,而是一个连续记录周遭社会生活的载体。周围发生了什么,今天做了什么,谁来拜访过,谁出生了,谁逝去了。女性日记作者们更多地聚焦于她们的家庭生活和周遭的社区生活,描绘19世纪中叶人们的日常惯例。她们并不书写自己。

secular /ˈsekjələ(r)/ adj. not connected with spiritual or religious matters 现世的;世俗的;非宗教的

capture /ˈkæptʃə(r)/ verbto succeed in accurately expressing a feeling, an atmosphere, etc. in a picture, piece of writing, film/ movie, etc. (用图画、文章、电影等准确地)表达,刻画,描述 SYNcatch 


Diaries today are, for the most part, private. These New England diaries, in contrast, were commonly shared. Young women who were married would send their diaries home to their parents as a way of maintaining kin relations. When family or friends came to visit, it was not uncommon to sit down and go through one’s journal together. Late 19th-century Victorian parents would often read aloud their children’s diaries at the end of the day. These were not journals with locks on them, meant only for the eyes of the diarist, but a means of sharing experiences with others.

当代生活中,日记大多是私密的。而这些新英格兰人的日记,则通常是可以共享的。已婚的年轻女性会将自己的日记寄回家,用以维系与父母间的亲密关系。当家人或者朋友来访时,主人也经常会坐下来同他们一道翻看日记。在19世纪后期的维多利亚时代,父母通常会在夜晚大声朗读子女的日记。这些不上锁的日志,它们的意义并不止于写作者自身,而是一种写作者与人们分享经历的方式。


Diaries are not the only media that people have used to document lives and share them with others. Scrapbooks, photo albums, baby books and even slide shows are all ways in which we have done this in the past, to various audiences. Together, they suggest that we have long used media as a means of creating traces of our lives. We do this to understand ourselves, to see trends in our behaviour that we can’t in lived experiences. We create traces as part of our identity work and as part of our memory work. Sharing mundane and everyday life events can reinforce social connection and intimacy. For example, you take a picture of your child’s first birthday. It is not only a developmental milestone: the photo also reinforces the identity of the family unit itself. The act of taking the photo and proudly sharing it further reaffirms one as a good and attentive parent. In other words, the media traces of others figure in our own identities.

日记并不是人们用以记录和分享生命的唯一媒介。剪贴本、相册、婴儿成长记录本,甚至幻灯片,都是过去人们用以向不同观众分享经历的方式。这些都证明了长久以来人们都将媒体作为创建自己生命轨迹的一种方式。我们由此来理解自身,观察自身的行为趋势,这都是在别人的经历中无法做到的。我们将这些轨迹作为我们身份和记忆的一部分。分享日常生活可以增强社会连结度和亲密度。比如,你为孩子的第一个生日拍了照片。这不仅仅只是一个成长里程碑:照片同样也增强了家庭单元的身份特性。拍下照片并骄傲地分享出去强调了某人是个悉心照料孩子的好家长。换句话说,我们自身的身份中包含了媒体记录下的别人的生命轨迹。

reaffirm /ˌri:əˈfɜ:m; NAmE -ˈfɜ:rm/ verb [VN]  to state sth again in order to emphasize that it is still true 重申;再次确定

figure /ˈfɪgə(r); NAmE ˈfɪgjər/ verb [V] ~ (as sth) (in/ among sth) to be part of a process, situation, etc. especially an important part 是重要部份;是…的部份 SYNfeature 


By comparing old technologies with new technologies that enable us to document ourselves and the world around us, we can begin to identify what is really different about the contemporary networked environment. Building on a 20th-century broadcast model of media, today’s social media platforms are, by and large, free to use, unlike historical diaries, scrapbooks and photo albums, which people had to buy. Today, advertising subsidises our use of networked platforms. Therefore these platforms are incentivised to encourage use of their networks to build larger audiences and to better target them. Our pictures, our posts and our likes are commodified – that is, they are used to create value through increasingly targeted advertising.

通过对比用以记录生活和世界的新老技术,我们开始认识到当代网络环境的不同。如今的社交媒体平台是建立在20世纪的媒体广播模型之上的。这些社交媒体平台大多是免费的。而历史上的日记、剪贴本、相册则需要花钱购买。如今,广告的出现推动了我们对网络平台的使用。因此,这些社交平台也就需要鼓励更多人使用从而获得更大的受众基数,以便更好地制定营销策略。我们的照片、帖子、点赞数都被商品化了——也就是说,它们都在日渐精准的广告中被用以创造价值。


I don’t want to suggest that, historically, using media to create traces of ourselves occurred outside of a commercial system. We have long used commercial products to document our lives and to share them with others. Sometimes even the content was commercialised. Early 19th-century scrapbooks were full of commercial material that people would use to document their lives and the world around them. It’s easy to think that once you buy a journal or scrapbook, you own it. But, of course, the examples of sending diaries back and forth, or of Victorian parents reading their children’s diaries aloud, complicate notions of historical singular ownership.

基于历史,我不愿意说,通过媒体建立自身生活轨迹是游离于商业体系之外的。长久以来,我们一直通过商业产品去记录和分享我们的生活。有时甚至我们记录的内容也是商业化的。19世纪早期的剪贴本上就充斥着人们会用以去记录生活和世界的商品。当你购买了一本日记本或剪贴本后,你就拥有了它。这不难理解。但是,当然,将日记本寄给别人分享时,或者,当维多利亚时期的父母将孩子的日记高声朗读出来的时候,日记单一所有权的历史意义也就变得复杂了。


Commercial access to our media traces is also historically complex. For example, people used to buy their cameras and film from Kodak, and then send film back to Kodak to be developed. In these cases, Kodak had access to all of the traces, or memories, of its customers but the company didn’t commodify these traces in the ways that social media platforms do today. Kodak sold customers its technology and its service. The company didn’t give it away in exchange for mining their customers’ traces to sell ads targeted at them in the way that social media platforms use our traces to target us today.

使用商业方式获得人们通过媒体建立的轨迹,这种行为也具有其历史复杂性。比如,人们过去从科达公司购买相机和胶卷,然后再把胶卷送回科达公司冲印。在这些案例中,科达公司能够接触到客户的所有轨迹或者记忆,但该公司却并未像如今的社交媒体平台一样,将这些轨迹进行商业化使用。科达公司向其客户销售的是技术和服务,而不是像如今的社交媒体平台一样,销售技术和服务来挖掘客户的轨迹,从而向其发送针对性的广告。


Instead of social media merely connecting us, it has become a cult of notifications, continually trying to draw us in with the promise of social connectivity – it’s someone’s birthday, you have a Facebook memory, someone liked your picture. I’m not arguing that such social connectivity isn’t meaningful or real, but I believe it’s unfair to presume that people are increasingly narcissistic for using these platforms. There’s a multibillion-dollar industry pulling us into our smartphones, relying on a longstanding human need for communication. We share our everyday experiences because it helps us to feel connected to others, and it always has. The urge to be present on social media is much more complex than simply narcissism. Social media of all kinds not only enable people to see their reflections, but to feel their connections as well.

社交媒体在连接人与人的同时,也演变成了一种关于通知的魔咒,试图通过承诺社会连结度而将我们持续套牢——今天是某人的生日,你有一段facebook记忆,有人给你的照片点赞了。我并非要证明这样的社会连结是无意义或虚假的,但是我相信通过预设立场,认为社交平台时代人们正在变得越来越自恋,这是不公平的。社交媒体的背后,是一个数以百万美元计的行业,通过利用人类长久以来对交流的需求,试图将我们始终控制在手机屏幕上。我们分享我们的日常经验是因为这可以帮助我们感知到与他人的连结,就像一直以来的那样。想要一直保持在线状态的冲动远比自恋这一单一因素要复杂的多。任何一种社交媒体的作用,都不仅仅是可以让人们看到自己的影像,而是可以让人们感受到人与人之间的连结。


上个账号被 永封


提出问题的人 被解决了


后台回复关键词和谐】


防止取经号 再次消失


#访问取经号官网#

网站域名 qujinghao.com,即“取经号”的全拼

#外刊资源#

后台回复 外刊,获取《经济学人》等原版外刊获得方法

#关注取经号#

扫描 二维码,关注跑得快的取经号(id: J2West

【Aeon】喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋

【Aeon】喜欢自拍,并非因为自恋

<原文链接:https://aeon.co/ideas/the-urge-to-share-news-of-our-lives-is-neither-new-nor-narcissistic>

始发于微信公众号: 取经号

Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注