Skip to content

【大西洋月刊】衣冠禽兽

【大西洋月刊】衣冠禽兽


在绝大多数的性骚扰案件中,施动者都是男性。这看起来是一个两性特征造成的结果,但从本质来看,它难道不是一个社会权力结构和环境教育的问题吗?而在这两个维度上,后者尤甚。


衣冠禽兽

【大西洋月刊】衣冠禽兽


作者:OLGA KHAZAN

译者:陈可桐

校对:刘璠

策划:唐萧


Men vastly outnumber women among sexual harassers. The reason has more to do with culture than with intrinsic maleness.

绝大多数的性骚扰者都是男性,其原因更多的源自文化,而非内在的雄性特征


本文选自 The Atlantic | 取经号原创翻译

关注取经号,回复关键词“外刊”

获取《经济学人》等原版外刊获得方法

 

I can’t imagine my teenage self—or any girl I knew—doing anything like what Christine Blasey Ford described teenage boys doing to her. Watching the Senate Judiciary Committee’s hearing last week, I was struck by the feeling that the Brett Kavanaugh she described and I both went to something called “high school,” but they were about as similar as a convent is to Space Camp.

我无法想象青少年时期的我,或任何一个我知道的女孩,能做出克里斯蒂娜·布拉西·福特的描述中,那些男孩对她所实施的行为。看着上周参议院司法委员会的听证会,令我震惊的是,我和福特口中的布雷特·卡瓦诺竟然都上过所谓的「高中」,但这两个「高中」之别,简直如同女修道院与太空营之别。

福特举报卡瓦诺实施性侵

https://edition.cnn.com/2018/09/27/politics/christine-blasey-ford-raw-testimony/index.html

convent / ˈkɔnvənt / n  building(s) in which a community of nuns lives 女修道院


Ford has alleged that when she and Kavanaugh were in high school, the Supreme Court nominee drunkenly pinned her down on a bed, tried to rip off her clothes, and covered her mouth so she wouldn’t scream. A confidential FBI investigation, according to Senate Republicans, did not corroborate her account. Senate Democrats, meanwhile, say the investigation was not thorough enough, and several people who say they have knowledge of the allegations against Kavanaugh have told The New Yorker that they felt the FBI was not interested in their accounts.

福特宣称,当她和卡瓦诺都在读高中的时候,这位现在被提名为最高法院大法官的人,醉醺醺地把她扑倒在床上,试图扒掉她的衣服,并且捂住她的嘴,防止她惊声尖叫。共和党参议员称,FBI的秘密调查并没有证实她的指控;同时,民主党参议员称,调查仍不够彻底。有些人自称了解对卡瓦诺的指控,但是他们告诉《纽约客》,FBI对他们的陈述并不感兴趣。

corroborate / kəˈrɔbəreɪt/ v  confirm or give support to (a statement, belief, theory, etc) 证实, 支持


Let’s say, for the sake of argument, that Ford was mistaken and that it was some other boy who assaulted her. Either way, it boggles my mind that any teenage boy would feel empowered to do such a thing.

不论真假,权当讨论:我们假设福特记错了,试图性侵她的是另一个男孩。无论怎样,令我感到无法理解的是,一个普通的十几岁男孩竟然会认为自己有权力做这样的事。


In high school, I made a list of all the boys I liked. My bitchy friend (everyone has one) told some of the listed boys. I was mortified—not only because they did not return the sentiment (this went without saying) but also because I felt like I had inflicted my liking on the boys. They were just minding their business, trying to live, and here I was, burdening them with my liking. It felt like such a grievous imposition, making someone deal with affection he wasn’t prepared to receive.

在高中的时候,我把我喜欢的男孩子列了一张表。一个「表面朋友」(每个人都有吧)把这件事告诉了其中几个男孩们。我羞愤难当。不只因为这些男孩们没有回应我的情感(这不用说了),还因为我感觉自己把喜爱强加在了他们身上。他们只是过着自己的生活,处理着自己的事。而我,把自己对他们的喜爱变成了他们的负担。强行让一个人去处理一份他不准备接受的爱慕,感觉是把痛苦强加给了他。感觉实在是一种令人痛苦的惩罚。

bitchy friend friends that when around you they act like you all are best friends. When not around you they ignore you, one word you, talk shit, don’t give a fuck about the friendship.

mortified  /ˈmɔːtɪfaɪd/ adj  extremely offended, ashamed, or embarrassed使(某人)深感羞辱或难堪


I wasn’t a particularly shy kid or an introvert. I was just taught—or maybe had absorbed—that boys will let you know if they want to date you, and your job was to sit patiently and wait to be let known. Bucking this norm occurred only on one day of the year, for our version of the Sadie Hawkins dance, which was special and exciting for the simple fact that it was the day when girls were allowed to tell boys what they wanted.

我并不是个特别内向的孩子,也不怕羞。只是我接受的教育,或者我所理解的情形是:如果男生想和你约会,他们会告诉你的。女孩子只需要坐着,静候佳音。只有一年一度的「女性择伴舞会」上,这个惯例才会被打破。只有在这个特殊而刺激的日子里,女孩才被允许主动告诉男孩们她们想要什么。

introvert  / ˈɪntrəvɜːt / n person who is more interested in his own thoughts and feelings than in things outside himself, and is often shy and unwilling to speak or join in activities with others (思想感情等)内向的人


Admittedly, some of this was almost certainly regional: I grew up in the deep suburban South, where many of the cool kids at my school were saving themselves for marriage. None of my close friends drank, and I had my first sip of alcohol at dinner with my parents the night I graduated.

不可否认,这有一些地区性的因素:我在南部腹地的一个郊区长大。在这里,学校最酷的孩子们大多拒绝婚前性行为。我的好友们无一饮酒。而我直到大学毕业的那个晚上,和父母共进晚餐时,才初尝酒味。


I hated our gendered dating rules and found them endlessly inefficient. But still, leaking a list of my boy preferences felt like asking for a raise on your first day at a new job—too forward, too eager, too much like something guaranteed to bring about the opposite result of the one you were hoping for.

我对我们按照性别制定的约会规则深恶痛绝,并且也发觉它极度的低效。但是,泄露出「我喜爱的男生列表」,就像入职第一天就要求升职一样:太冒昧,太激进,太像那种必定会适得其反的事。


The past year has opened my eyes to the fact that, apparently, many men do not have similar compunctions. I experience this same befuddlement every time I read about yet another #MeToo allegation. It would never occur to me to install a button under my desk to entrap my victims. It would never occur to me to try to masturbate in front of people I barely know. I would find it unthinkable to ask a stranger to watch me shower.

然而,过去的一年使我认识到了一个明显事实:许多男人并不会有和我类似的自我谴责。每当我读到一个又一个 MeToo 的指控时,这个困惑都萦绕在我心头。我永远也不会想在自己的桌子底下装一个按钮,来困住我的施暴目标;我也从未兴起过在几乎不认识的人面前自慰的念头;在我看来,让陌生人看着我洗澡更是无法想象的事情。

install a button under my desk to entrap my victims

https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2018/05/11/just-how-did-matt-lauers-famous-desk-button-work/

masturbate in front of people I barely know

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/09/arts/television/louis-ck-sexual-misconduct.html/

ask a stranger to watch me shower

http://www.tmz.com/2017/10/10/harvey-weinstein-recorded-asking-model-watch-him-shower-sting-operation-audio/


I can’t help but feel like the difference between teen me and how teen Kavanaugh allegedly behaved, and indeed between me and the other accused #MeToo perpetrators, comes down to how our different genders are conditioned to approach anything of a sexual nature.

我不禁认为,青少年时期的我,和指控中青少年时期的卡瓦诺之间的差别——实际上是我和其他 MeToo 的施暴者的差别——可以归结于:对待具有性别特质的事物,两性各自的方式是如何被决定的。

perpetrator /ˈpəːpɪtreɪtə/ n  someone who does something morally wrong or illegal 犯罪者


Though there have been several cases in the #MeToo movement in which a woman was the perpetrator of harassment, the overwhelming majority of the offenders have been men. What is it about men, I’ve found myself wondering, that explains this extreme gender disparity? And is it even about the men themselves?

虽然 MeToo 运动中有一些案例的施暴者是女性,但是绝大多数是男性。我感到困惑:究竟是男性的什么特质导致了这样极端的差异?甚至,这真的是由男性本身的特质导致的吗?


Some have ascribed it to knee-jerk assumptions about men’s essential nature: nasty, brutish, and short on impulse control. Boys will be boys, and the best we can do is contain their boyish urges. But where do we get the idea that it’s just what men are like?

有人把这些归因于膝跳反射般的男人天性:下流、粗野、缺乏自制。男孩永远是男孩,我们能做的,最多只有遏制他们的男孩子气的冲动。但是我们怎么知道男性就是这样呢?


One theory I had, especially when it comes to the lower-level sexual-harassment offenses, was that women are simply more risk-averse. They don’t dare put their hands on the knees of co-workers at bars because they know that they might be rejected, or that the co-worker might not like it, or that it’s just not a good thing to do with someone who’s going to be sitting next to you at the Thursday event-planning meeting. Women, I thought, must just like to err on the side of caution.

我所知的一个理论称,女性更加厌恶风险,尤其是涉及一些程度较轻的性骚扰时。在酒吧里,女性不敢把手放在同事的膝盖上,因为她们知道自己可能会被拒绝,或者同事可能会不喜欢,又或者对一个周四开计划会时将要坐在你边上的人做这种事是不妥的。我认为,女性只是更倾向于小心行事。

risk-averse /`risk-a,verse/  adj. opposed to taking risks, or only willing to take small risks 风险厌恶


Meta-analyses have indeed shown that men are more likely to take various types of risks than women are. Some studies also show that men are more into thrill seeking, if exposing yourself to a woman without her permission could be considered a sick kind of thrill. (One older paper even characterized risk taking as an inherent part of “masculine psychology.”) Stress, like the kind people experience at work, might exacerbate these differences, since men take more risks under stress and women take fewer.

统计整合分析确实已经表明,相比女性,男性更倾向于承担各式各样的风险。一些研究也表明男性更喜欢追求刺激:或许,在未经女性同意的情况下暴露自己的身体可以被认为是一种病态的刺激(一篇较早的文献甚至把冒险看做「男性心理」的内在部分)。一些压力,比如在工作中承担的压力,或许会激化这样的差异,因为男性在压力下倾向于承担更多的风险,而女性则倾向于承担更少。

exacerbate  / ɪgˈzæsəbeɪt / v  make (pain, disease, a situation) worse; aggravate 使(疼痛、疾病﹑情形)恶化; 加剧


But other studies have complicated that narrative. For one, women seem just as keen to take certain kinds of risks, like disagreeing with their friends on an issue or attempting to sell a screenplay. It’s just that when surveys measure risk taking in terms of things like unprotected sex and motorcycles, women tend to demur, since those types of activities are either more dangerous for women (the unprotected sex) or less familiar to them (riding motorcycles).

其他的一些研究就让故事变得复杂。一种理论说,女性倾向于接受某一些特定种类的风险,比如「在某些事情上与朋友持相反意见」,「尝试推销剧本」之类。只是,当这些调查用「无保护措施的性行为」和「骑摩托车」之类的事情来衡量风险时,女性倾向于拒绝。因为这些活动要么对女性来说危险更大(比如无保护措施的性行为),要么对女性来说比较陌生(比如骑摩托车)。

narrative  / ˈnærətɪv / n spoken or written account of events; story 叙事; 故事 


In fact, when researchers measured risk using more stereotypically feminine risky behavior, such as “cooking an impressive but difficult meal for a dinner party,” women turned out to be just as, if not more, likely to take risks as men. “Maybe there isn’t anything so special about male risk taking, after all,” wrote the University of Melbourne professor Cordelia Fine in Nautilus.

实际上,当研究者用诸如「为晚餐派对做一道令人印象深刻,但是很难做的菜」之类的,更加刻板的「女性化风险行为」来衡量风险时,女性并不比男性更加厌恶风险。墨尔本大学教授科德利亚·芬在杂志《鹦鹉螺》上说:「或许,在承受风险这件事情上,男性本身并没有什么特殊的。」

stereotypical / ,steriə`tɪpɪkl / adj. exactly like the stereotype of a particular person or thing 刻板的


Several prominent psychologists believe there are actually few psychological differences between men and women. Men, it would seem, are from Mars, and women are also from Mars but are nonetheless baffled by why our fellow Martians would opt to do things the way they do. The major differences between the genders are that men are more aggressive, can physically throw things farther, masturbate more, and are more comfortable with casual, uncommitted relationships. These very differences can help explain the disparity in sexual harassment.

一些著名的心理学家认为,两性之间确几乎不存在心理方面的差异。看起来,男人来自火星。女人同样也来自火星,但对男性处理事情的方式感到困惑。性别之间最主要的差异就是,男性更好斗,物理上讲可以把东西扔得更远,自慰更多,更适应随意无凭的人际关系。正是这些差别,解释了性骚扰上的性别差异。


 “The bottom line is that men and women have quite similar psychology other than sexuality and aggression,” says Janet Shibley Hyde, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin who has done several studies on this topic.

威斯康辛大学的心理学家珍妮特·希布利·海德对这个主题进行了一些研究,她说:「最重要的是,除了性欲和侵略性之外,两性之间的心理很类似。」


There’s also evidence that men and boys are less empathetic than women are. Men make up the vast majority of prison inmates, commit 99 percent of rapes and 89 percent of murders, and cause more severe car crashes. Just 16 percent of sexual-harassment complaints to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission were filed by men.

也有证据表明,相较于女性,男性更缺乏共情能力。狱中囚犯绝大部分是男性,99%的强奸案,89%的谋杀案的凶手是男性,而且男性造成的车祸更多。向公平就业机会委员会提起性骚扰举报的人中,只有16%是男性。

empathetic / `empə,θetɪk / adj. able to understand how someone feels because you can imagine what it is like to be them 共情的,移情的


Boys are raised to think that men should be the initiators of sexual relationships, and, as Hyde explains, boys are also socialized to be more aggressive. The two processes can be toxic when combined. “Gender differences in empathy are not huge, but they’re there,” Hyde says. “If you’re going to victimize someone, it takes a certain lack of empathy.” (Though some studies point to men’s higher level of testosterone as the explanation for their higher levels of aggression, she says, “Humans are much less controlled by their hormones than other species are.”)

海德解释道:男孩在养育过程中受到的教育会使一个男孩认为:男性应该是性关系的发起人;社会化过程也使得男孩更加具有侵略性。这两个过程合在一起,就可能会产生毒害作用。海德说:「虽然共情方面的性别差异并不是很大,但它确实存在。如果你想要加害于某人,那势必要求比较低的共情能力。」(虽然有些研究指出,男性更高的攻击性是由于更高的睾酮水平,但海德说:「比起其他的物种,人类受激素水平的影响较低。」)


The explanation, then, might lie in social norms, or in what society is telling boys as they grow into men. Men are told they’re supposed to behave more aggressively, so they do. According to research, powerful people follow different societal rules than those who are powerless, and there are more men in power than there are women. Among men in powerful positions, but not among women, a fear of being seen as weak is related to an inclination to sexually harass others. People in power are more likely to wrongly perceive that subordinates are sexually interested in them.

那么,这一差异的解释就可能是:社会规则。或者说,在男孩成长为男人的过程中,社会向他们传达了什么。男性被告知:男性应当表现出更强的侵略性,因此他们照做了。研究表明,有权势的人与无权势的人遵守的社会规则不同,而有权势的男性数量大于女性数量。在手握权力的男性中,对「被视为弱者」的恐惧与性骚扰他人的倾向相关,而在女性中则不是这样。掌权者更容易会错意:他们更倾向于认为下属对自己有「性趣」。

perceive  / pəˈsiːv / v  become aware of; notice; observe 意识到, 注意到, 观察到


“Power is enabling, and it is known to reduce empathy,” Peter Glick, a psychology professor at Lawrence University, told me. “It allows people to act on their impulses.” Glick says this is why it’s so often confident women who are harassed, or those who try to assert themselves, or who behave in a masculine way, or who otherwise challenge men’s power. They are being put back in their place.

劳伦斯大学的心理学教授彼得·格里克告诉我:「权力具有鼓动性。而且,众所周知,权力会减少共情能力。它允许人们任凭自己的冲动行事。」格里克说,这就是为什么自信的,试图自我主张的,以男性方式行事,或以其他方式挑战男性权力的女性如此频繁地受到骚扰。她们是在被告知:要守本分。


People in power enjoy “looser” rules, according to work by the University of Maryland psychologist Michele Gelfand, the author of the new book Rule Makers, Rule Breakers. “Loose” environments are those in which norms are less strict and norm violations go unpunished; “tight” environments are the opposite. “People in high-power positions tend to live in looser worlds where they sometimes not only violate social norms but also border on completely inappropriate behavior,” she told me. In her book, Gelfand points to Uber as an example of a company where extreme looseness went wrong. “Several former employees described the exceedingly loose work environment as a ‘frat house,’ rife with unprofessional and even abusive behavior,” she writes.

根据《规则制定者,规则破坏者》一书的作者,马里兰大学心理学家米凯莱·格尔凡德的研究,掌权者享受着更宽松的规则。所谓宽松的环境是指:规定不太严格,违反规定也不会受到惩罚。而严苛的环境则恰恰相反。她告诉我说:「高位掌权者往往生活在规则宽松的世界里。有时,他们不仅违反社会规则,甚至会做出完全不当的举动。」她在书中将Uber公司极度宽松的环境作为一个反面案例:「一些前员工把Uber极其宽松的环境描述为『兄弟会』,充斥着各种违反职业准则,甚至是羞辱性的行为。」


In a 2010 study, Gelfand and Hannah Riley Bowles hinted at why sexual harassers often get away with the behavior for so long. They found that people who thought of themselves as “high status” were more likely to want to punish their subordinates when they broke the rules, but not other high-status people. White men, but not white women, were more lenient toward other men when they broke the rules. The social hierarchy is reinforced, they write, because high-status people are granted more leniency.

在一项2010年的研究中,格尔凡德和汉娜·赖利·鲍里斯暗示了为何性骚扰的肇事者一直以来都可以逃避追责。她们发现:认为自己具有较高社会地位的人,在下属违反规则时更倾向于进行惩罚,而对于其他违反规则的位高者则较为宽容。白人男性对其他违反规则的白人男性较为宽容,而白人女性则不会如此。她们写道:地位较高者更容易得到宽容,社会阶级进一步固化了。

leniency / `liniənsi / n a punishment that is not as severe as it could be 宽容


Glick also underscored how a permissive, boys’-club environment can turn a would-be harasser into an actual harasser. “There are these bad apples, but there are also environments that really permit it,” he says. “If the allegations are to be believed about the guys that Kavanaugh hung out with, it’s a lot of bragging about their sexual conquests.” This is a major reason that fraternities, with their culture of heavy drinking, male-on-male competition, andhazing rituals, are so often associated with higher rates of sexual assault than the rest of the university.

格里克同样强调,一个放纵的,男性俱乐部般的环境是如何将「潜在骚扰者」转变为「实际骚扰者」的。他说:「确实有害群之马,但是也确实有允许这种行为的环境。如果对卡瓦诺的男性同伴们的相关指控可信,他们就确实在大肆吹嘘自己的性行为征服史。」这就是为何有着酗酒、男性竞争、羞辱仪式文化的兄弟会,相比于大学的其他部分,更多地与高性侵犯率联系在一起的主要原因。

brag  / bræg/ v  talk with too much pride (about sth); boast 吹嘘(某事物); 自夸

hazing  / `heɪzɪŋ / n.the practice of making people do strange, difficult, and sometimes dangerous things in order to become a member of a group, especially a FRATERNITY at a university 羞辱性的(尤指兄弟会入会仪式)


When women are seen as mere tokens of status to be collected, natural male aggressiveness can descend to a dark place. Subtle messages within social circles can imply that women are, sometimes quite literally, up for grabs. Men who want to sexually harass someone, says John Pryor, a professor of psychology at Illinois State University, “are unlikely to do it if they’re in social settings where there’s normative pressure not to do it.”

当女性仅仅被用来收集,仅仅被视作是地位的象征的时候,男性的侵略天性便堕入黑暗。社交圈里的一些微妙的信息会暗示,女性是无主之物,可以争抢,有时甚至非常明显。伊利诺州立大学的心理学教授约翰·普尔说,想要实施性骚扰的男性「在有『规范压力』的社会环境中,往往不会轻举妄动。」

up for grabs available for anyone to take, win, or settle 任何人都可以争抢


Perhaps the problem, then, is not in “masculine psychology,” but in environments that allow the least scrupulous men to act on their most hideous impulses. The norms I grew up with were not great for women. Those of Georgetown Prep, where Kavanaugh went to high school, may have been even worse.

或许问题并不在于「男性心理」,而在于使那些最不老实的男性放纵自己可憎的性冲动的环境。陪伴我成长的社会规范对于女性来说并不好。而卡瓦诺上的乔治城预科高中的社会规范,或许更糟糕。

hideous /ˈhɪdɪəs / adj  filling the mind with horror; very ugly; frightful 令人惊骇的; 极其丑陋的; 可怕的


译者的话


本文的逻辑:男女在心理方面的差异,并非完全源于天性、本能,而是更多地来源于社会环境。这导致了男性更多地对女性实施性侵。


女权和平权的问题,如今似乎已经完全跳脱出了探讨「平等」的框架。存在一套适用于男性的社会规则,同时并行着一套适用于女性的社会规则,很难讲这两套规则是彻头彻尾的、压倒性的「不平等」:社会似乎只是为你规划了一条与另外一个性别不同的路线,仅此而已。


只是问题在于,我们是否拥有自己选择路线的自由,更进一步,是否拥有修改这条路线的权力。很显然,并没有。我们简单的大脑甚至无法构建出一维的「性别光谱」供每个人自由选择,只是粗暴地用生理性别把人群划分开。因为我们并不希望一个人是复杂的:简单意味着可迅速理解。既然社会已经构建了一套系统来认识、教育每一个人,那社会系统无法辨识的就是坏的,无法融入群体,甚至会受到惩罚。


我无法代表所有人,但我并不想要这样的结果:我不想被标签描述,不想被存入数据库。用本文提出的例子来说:我不想因为自身是男性,而被认为是「潜在性侵者」。


当然也不想因为翻译了这篇文章就被认为是「女权主义者」。


社会构造的系统已经很完善,但只要是系统就一定有bug。使系统逐渐改变的,往往是这些意料之外的bug。个人改变社会环境的可能性微乎其微,但是成为一个模糊的,无法被标签化的人是可以做到的。当生理性别的女性和男性在行为特征和认知模式上无法被轻易区分时,平等才能实现。


By 陈可桐


上个账号被 永封


提出问题的人 被解决了


后台回复关键词和谐】


防止取经号 再次消失


#访问取经号官网#

网站域名 qujinghao.com,即“取经号”的全拼

#外刊资源#

后台回复 外刊,获取《经济学人》等原版外刊获得方法

#关注取经号#

扫描 二维码,关注跑得快的取经号(id: J2West


【大西洋月刊】衣冠禽兽

<原文链接:https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/10/why-do-more-men-women-sexually-harass/572221/>

始发于微信公众号: 取经号

Be First to Comment

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注