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【纽约书评】一场崩解,两代隔阂,三伏盛夏,再见,克罗地亚

一场崩解,两代隔阂,三伏盛夏,再见,克罗地亚

由于一系列的冲突和政治动荡,南斯拉夫在20世纪初逐渐走向分裂,1992年正式解体为斯洛文尼亚、克罗地亚、波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维纳、马其顿、黑山、塞尔维亚,以及塞尔维亚境内的两个自治省:科索沃和伏伊伏丁那。


一场崩解,两代隔阂,三伏盛夏,再见,克罗地亚


一场崩解,两代隔阂,三伏盛夏,再见,克罗地亚


作者:Ivan Sršen

译者:言寺

校对:淤青

编辑:木木夕


World Cup 2018: Croatia’s Conflict Resolutions

世界杯2018: 克罗地亚的冲突解决


本文选自 The New York Review of Books | 取经号原创翻译

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The summer of 1990, for those who lived in what was then Yugoslavia, was something like the summer of 1939 in Europe: warm and easy-going, spent mostly on the beach with a cold beer in hand, or—if you were far from any sea or lake—in the shade of a tree or a tall building, comfortably cooling your feet in a washbowl. No one expected the sudden break-up of that Balkan country, or at least not me, then an eleven-year-old boy.

对曾经生活在南斯拉夫的人们来说,1990年的夏天跟1939年欧洲的夏天有些相似:在温暖、舒适的天气里,人们大部分时候待在沙滩上,手拿一罐冰啤酒,或者如果不在海边,就待在大树、高楼的阴影下,在凉水盆中舒服地泡着脚。没人曾料想那个巴尔干半岛的国家会突然分裂,至少当时的我,那个只有11岁的小男孩,没有想到。


I was busy playing soccer on my street in my hometown, Zagreb, where there was little traffic in the warmer months. In our games of four-a-side, the doors of the driveways of my house and the house across the street served as goal posts. I was the goalkeeper for the Street Team’s “Left Side,” imagining myself as Tomislav Ivković, a Croatian player who was the goalkeeper for both the Yugoslav national team and Dinamo Zagreb back in the 1980s. Ivković lingered in my mind whenever I leapt to catch the old leather ball, frayed from the same asphalt that scraped my knees and elbows when I had to defend penalty kicks taken by our neighbors opposite, after a foul or a hand-ball.

当时我正在家乡萨格勒布,忙着在我的街区踢足球。天气炎热的时节,交通少有拥堵。在我们的四人足球比赛中,我家和街对面那家的私人车道的门口分别是是球门柱。我是我们街队“左侧”的守门员。我把自己想象成伊夫科维奇,一个在20世纪80年代同时效力于南斯拉夫国家队和萨格勒布迪纳摩俱乐部的守门员。犯规或是手球后,为了守住对方的罚球,我的膝盖和手肘在沥青地上擦伤了。每一次,当我飞扑出去接那只旧皮球,皮肤又摩擦到那片沥青地上时,伊夫科维奇的身影就在我脑海里徘徊不去。

fray /freɪ/ v. unravel or become worn at the edge, typically through constant rubbing 磨损


That summer, the Yugoslav team was beaten by Argentina in the quarter-finals of the World Cup in Italy, and Argentina was, in turn, beaten in the finals by the fearsome German team led by Rudi Völler, Jürgen Klinsmann, and Lothar Matthäus. Just after Dragan Stojković, that Yugoslavia team’s great Serbian midfielder, missed his penalty, Ivković saved Maradona’s shot and became the hero of our street. The disciplined and cool-headed Croatian goalkeeper had saved the honor of a country soon to be no more by repelling a penalty by the god of football himself.

那年夏天,在意大利举行的世界杯四分之一决赛上,南斯拉夫队被阿根廷队击败。随后,让人闻之色变的,由鲁迪·沃勒尔、尤尔根·克林斯曼、洛塔尔·马特乌斯带领的德国队在决赛击败了阿根廷队。就在南斯拉夫优秀的塞尔维亚中场队员史杜高域错失了他的罚球时,伊夫科维奇挡下了马拉多纳的射球,成了我们街区的英雄。这位自律、沉着冷静的克罗地亚守门员,击退了来自足球之神的罚球,捍卫了一个即将不再存在的国家的荣誉。


Many years later, I sat on our sofa in Zagreb with my son, now the same age as I was back in 1990, to watch Croatia play Argentina in our second match in the World Cup in Russia. Twenty-eight years have passed since the summer that’s stuck in my mind, ever after, as the end of my innocence and my country’s. But suddenly, I was taking part in a remake of that long-gone experience, made up of familiar actors: Maradona was there, in the VIP section of the Nizhny Novgorod Stadium, an eleven-year-old boy was sitting next to me, and I was watching the screen in disbelief: “How on earth is Croatia going to pull this off?”

许多年后在萨格勒布,我与儿子坐在沙发上,一起看俄罗斯世界杯克罗地亚的第二场比赛,克罗地亚对阿根廷。儿子与1990年时的我同岁,距离仍长存在我心里的夏天已过去28年,我和我的国家的纯真年代早已不复。但突然间,那记忆中久远的一幕似乎重现,熟悉的演员登场:迭戈·马拉多纳就在现场,他在下诺夫哥罗德体育场的VIP席位上;一个十一岁的男孩正坐在我身边;而我满怀不信地看着屏幕:“天知道克罗地亚要怎么赢下这场比赛?”

pull off succeed in 达成,成功


My son was perplexed. “What makes you say that?” he asked with genuine curiosity, not aware of the fears that have accumulated inside me over the past three decades, and which meant that, from the moment Argentina’s Ángel Di María kicked off the match, this question echoed in my head. I tried to tell myself that, in fact, there was every reason for Croatia to pull this off—we had a fantastic team, led by some of Europe’s best players, and entirely capable of reaching the very end of the championship. It wasn’t until the second half, though, that events began to persuade me of the truth of this.

我的儿子很困惑,“你为什么这么说?”他的询问里饱含天真,并没有意识到在我心里累积了三十多年的忧惧。阿根廷的安赫尔·迪马利亚开球后,这个问题就在我脑海里萦绕。我试着去告诉自己,实际上克罗地亚有很多理由能赢下这场比赛——我们有一支很棒的队伍,欧洲最优秀的球员为我们带队,我们完全有能力在夺冠之路上走到最后。但一直到了下半场,球场上的表现才说服我去相信这一事实。

perplex /pərˈplɛks/ v. cause (someone) to feel completely baffled 使困惑


Ante Rebić, our indefatigable young winger, took advantage of an error by the Argentinian goalkeeper Willy Caballero to score a beautiful goal. Then Luka Modrić, Croatia’s superb captain, struck an unstoppable shot from twenty-five yards that also ended up in Caballero’s goal. Now it was possible, I felt, that the mystique of great Argentina could be broken. When Ivan Rakitić scored our third goal, this new realization was confirmed. Croatia was transformed, for many of us, from underdogs into favorites.

我们年轻、不知疲倦的边锋安特·雷比奇,抓住了阿根廷守门员维利·卡瓦列罗的一个疏漏,赢下了漂亮的一球。紧接着,克罗地亚队卓越的队长卢卡·莫德里奇,从25码处踢出了势不可挡的一球,射进了卡瓦列罗的球门。现在,阿根廷的神秘已被打破,我感到胜利成为可能。当伊万·拉基蒂奇射进第三个球时,胜负已定。对于我们很多人而言,克罗地亚已经转型,从劣势者变成了香饽饽。

indefatigable /ˌindəˈfadəɡəb(ə)l/ adj. persisting tirelessly 不知疲倦的


According to the French philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, the war machine is a concept intrinsic to human society—a model for living first forged by nomadic tribes, as they sought to temporarily preserve territory or power, that many modern states, seeking absolute control of the governed, later turned into the raison d’être of nationhood and the core of politics. Even though Croatia’s players could probably not care less for Deleuze and Guattari, they might agree with this theory—especially because many of them lived through the war and postwar period in Croatia and Bosnia in the 1990s.

如法国哲学家吉尔·德勒兹和菲利克斯·伽塔利所说,战争机器是根植于人类社会、为求生存的一个概念。游牧部落率先将此融铸成一种模式,他们所求是暂时性的保存领土或者能力。随后,为了追求对被管理人群的绝对控制,这一概念被许多现代国家发展为国家地位和政治核心的存在之理由。即使克罗地亚的球员们可能完全不在乎德勒兹和伽塔利, 但他们可能会同意这个理论,尤其是因为他们中的许多人都曾在生活在上世纪90年代克罗地亚和波斯尼亚的战争和战后时期。

raison d’être the most important reason or purpose for someone or something’s existence 存在的原因或理由(源自法语)


They, too, felt the weight of social divisions wrought by the war—the creation of new classes, the territorial battles, the struggles for lawful and unlawful possession, the manipulation of the masses by propaganda. And many of them, like today’s leading players from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Kosovo, also experienced exile, being displaced from the villages, towns, and cities where they had lived in their early years.

他们同样能感受到战争带来的社会分化的重量——新阶级的诞生、领土纷争、对合法及不合法的财产的争取、受政治宣传操控的普罗大众。而像今日的这些顶尖球员一样,他们中的许多人,来自波斯尼亚―黑塞哥维亚、塞尔维亚和科索沃,经历了颠沛流离,被迫逃离早年生活的村庄、乡镇和城市。


The Croatian team has three exceptional players who became exiles as a direct result of the conflict. Luka Modrić, for six seasons now a leading midfielder at the world’s top club over that span, Real Madrid, fled with his family to the Croatian port town of Zadar during the heavy fighting in Dalmatia in 1991; there they stayed for the five years of the war’s duration, and that was where he began playing football. Dejan Lovren, who plays for Liverpool in England, was born in the Bosnian town of Zenica in 1989, but his family fled the war to settle in Bavaria, Germany, for seven years. Since his parents were not able to resolve their residency status there, they eventually had to move back to Croatia, where the young Lovren struggled at school for a time because his Croatian was poor. Vedran Ćorluka, who’s now with Lokomotiv Moscow, spent the first six years of his life in the Bosnian village of Modran, near Derventa, in the region of Bosanska Posavina, an area that suffered heavily during the Bosnian war; and then, from 1992, he lived with his family in Zagreb.

克罗地亚队里有三位卓越的球员便是因为这场冲突成为了流亡之人。卢卡·莫德里奇在世界顶级俱乐部皇家马德里已经是连续六个赛季的顶级中场球员。1991年,达尔马提亚(南斯拉夫一地区)发生了激烈战斗,他和家人一起逃难至克罗地亚的扎达尔的港口镇。战火纷飞的五年间,莫德里奇住在扎达尔,也是在这里,他开始踢足球。目前效力于英格兰利物浦的迪赞·洛夫伦,在1989年生于波斯尼亚的泽尼察,但他的家庭逃离了战火并在德国巴伐利亚定居了七年。由于他的父母无法解决在德国的居留身份,他们最终不得不返回克罗地亚。在这一段时间里,洛夫伦因为自己糟糕的克罗地亚语在学校度过了一段艰难的时光。目前效力于莫斯科火车头队的韦德兰·乔尔卢卡在波斯尼亚的博萨维纳州,靠近代尔文塔的Modran村一直生活到六岁,这个区域是波斯尼亚战争期间的重灾区。自1992年起,他跟家人一起生活在萨格勒布。


As kids, these players had no social advantages, only challenges and obstacles, yet they made it in the mean world of professional football, where only money, physical fitness, and Kairos, the ancient Greeks’ god of opportunity and luck, play decisive roles. One can’t help but suspect that it is the hardships of their youth that has enabled them to meet with such success now, and lead this Croatian team to the semi-finals against England. Lovren once said in an interview:

作为孩子,这些球员们没有社会优势,有的只是挑战和阻碍,但他们在职业足球的残酷世界,在一个只有金钱、身体机能和希腊神话中代表机遇和运气的神祗凯洛能够起到决定性作用的地方,挣得了一席之地。人们不禁认为,正是他们年少时的艰难,让他们能达到今日的成功,并带领克罗地亚队来到了对抗英格兰的半决赛。洛夫伦在一次采访中曾说道:


“When I see the refugees from Syria and other countries today, my first reaction is that we have to give these people a chance. They deserve the kind of chance my parents and I received when we left Bosnia. They don’t want to be part of the war, which was caused by others, and the only thing they can do is to run away from it.”

“现在,每当我看到来自叙利亚和其他国家的难民时,我的第一个反应是,我们必须给他们一个机会。我和我的父母在离开波斯尼亚时得到的那种机会,也是他们应得的。战争是别人造成的,他们并不想成为其中的一部分,他们唯一能做的,是从中逃离。”


After Croatia’s tough win against Denmark in the round of sixteen, I traveled to Sarajevo for a literary festival co-organized by the Bosnian-American writer Aleksandar Hemon, who happened to be in the United States when the war in Bosnia broke out in 1992. Hemon, whose career bears a striking resemblance to the Polish writer Witold Gombrowicz’s expatriate experience after 1939, has never returned to live in his home country. Following the official closing of the festival on Saturday evening, some of the writers and poets, Hemon among them, got together in a bar to watch Croatia’s quarter-final game against Russia. Despite the lingering burdens of war, still only two decades old, most of the bar’s regular customers joined my son, who came to the festival with me, in cheering for Croatia.

在16强比赛,克罗地亚对决丹麦艰难取胜后,我前往萨拉热窝参加一个由波斯尼亚裔的美国作家亞历山大‧黑蒙组织举办的文学节。1992年,当波斯尼亚战争爆发时,黑蒙当时正身处美国,并再未能返回祖国生活,这与波兰作家维托尔德·贡布罗维奇在1939年后的流亡经历有着惊人的相似。周六晚上,在文学节正式落幕后,包括黑蒙在内的一些作家、诗人一起去了酒吧观看克罗地亚对俄罗斯的四分之一决赛。尽管战争留存的包袱仅过去了20年,这个酒吧里大部分的常客还是跟与我一起来参加文学节的儿子一道为克罗地亚欢呼鼓掌。

expatriate / ˌeksˈpātrēət / adj. living outside their native country 移居国外的


Together, we celebrated when our incredible goalie, Danijel Subašić, saved the decisive penalty, and Ivan Rakitić scored the winning goal. For a brief moment at least, to me and perhaps to all of us in the bar, it felt as though the war was finally over.

当我们无与伦比的守门员苏巴西奇挡下了决定性的罚球时,当拉基蒂奇射进决胜球时,我们一起庆祝。至少在那么一个短暂的时刻里,对于我,也许是对于这个酒吧里的所有人来说,我们感到战争仿佛终于结束了。


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一场崩解,两代隔阂,三伏盛夏,再见,克罗地亚


<原文链接:https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2018/07/11/world-cup-2018-croatias-conflict-resolution/>

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