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【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害

【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


麻辣烫?小火锅?未来可能吃不到这样的美食了。随着全球变暖、人口增加,食物短缺已经成为一个必然。按照现下获取食物的模式肯定是行不通的,我们急需开辟新的模式。昆虫、人造肉、螺旋藻等食物将走上我们的餐桌,而AR技术可以让我们一窥未来食物的全貌。


未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


译者:王津雨 & 徐嘉茵

校对:邹世昌

策划:赵萌萌


The future of food, served up right here in augmented reality

让AR技术为你呈上未来食物的“盛宴”


本文选自 The Economist | 取经号原创翻译

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THE WORLD will need to rethink its approach to food as the planet warms and the population grows towards an expected 9.7bn people in 2050. Several options are on the menu, including wider adoption of insects such as crickets and mealworms as a source of protein; artificial meat made from vegetable protein, or grown in vats; using spirulina and other forms of algae as a food supplement, or a foodstuff in its own right; and futuristic protein shakes that provide a nutritionally complete meal in a glass—handy for the busy astronaut who needs to get back to exploring Mars. Or perhaps we’ll use food robots that download recipes and 3D-print our meals from cartridges of ingredients, opening up all kinds of new shapes and textures for the cooks of the future to explore.

全球变暖仍在持续,且预计到2050年,世界人口将增长至97亿,以目前的发展趋势看,全世界都应该重新思考获取食物的方式了。已有一些选项出现在了菜单上,包括:更大范围地采用诸如蟋蟀和粉虱的昆虫,作为蛋白质的来源之一;使用由植物蛋白制成、或在容器中培养而成的人造肉;将螺旋藻和其他形式的藻类作为膳食补充剂,或直接作为一种食物;以及引入那种一杯就能提供完整营养的未来蛋白奶昔——这对于要忙着回去探索火星的宇航员来说是很方便的。或者,也许我们还能使用食物机器人去下载食谱,并借助3D打印技术,使用盛有食材的“墨盒”来打印出三餐,这就为未来的厨师们打开了一扇大门,能让他们去探索食物各种各样的新形状和纹路。


These different approaches each have pros and cons. But one thing is clear: consumer preferences will play a big part in determining the outcome. So which of these futuristic foods would you want to see on your table? Thanks to the magic of augmented reality (AR), which projects virtual objects into the real world, you can take a close look at some of the options in the comfort of your own kitchen. For The Economist’s first foray into AR, we have teamed up with Kabaq, a startup based in New York that operates at the intersection of AR and food.

这些不同的方法各有利弊,但有一点是很明确的:消费者的偏好将在最终结果的抉择过程中发挥重要作用。那么你希望在餐桌上看到上述未来食物中的哪一种呢?多亏了能将虚拟事物投射到现实场景中的增强现实技术(AR),你能很舒适地在自家厨房中仔细观察一些选项。作为《经济学人》涉足AR领域的首次试水,我们已和Kabaq公司达成了合作。该创业公司总部设于纽约,在AR技术和食物的交叉领域开展经营活动。

foray [‘fɔre] n. an initial attempt (especially outside your usual areas of competence)  涉足,初次尝试


To examine five possible futures of food, all you need is a smartphone with the Snapchat app. If you are reading this on a desktop or laptop computer, use the Snapchat app to scan the Snapcode alongside each paragraph below; if you are reading this on a smartphone, simply tap on the Snapcode and the Snapchat app will open. You will then be able to add the food in question as a temporary “lens” that lasts 24 hours (ask a teenager if you need help using the app). Within the Snapchat camera, you can then tap the red lens icon to place the food in the world.

你仅需一部带有Snapchat应用的智能手机,就可以查看食物可能出现的5种未来发展了。如果你正在台式机或笔记本电脑上阅读本文,可以使用Snapchat扫描以下每一段旁附有的二维码(Snapcode);如果你正在使用手机阅读,则仅需点击Snapcode就能打开Snapchat。然后可以将本文所讨论的食物添加到一个持续时间为24小时的临时“镜头”中(如果使用过程中需要帮助,就问个青少年吧)。接着在Snapchat内设相机里,你就可以点击红色的镜头图标,将食物放到现实场景中。


Use your fingers to move, zoom or rotate it—and, most importantly, decide whether you’d want to eat it. (Alas, AR technology does not yet capture taste or smell.) Tap the plate to see an infographic explaining the implications of each food choice; there’s also a brief audio commentary. We invite you to share an image with the hashtag #econfood once you’ve decided which of these options for the future of food you find most appetising. Tuck in!

你还能通过手指操作对图像进行移动、放大或旋转——而且,最重要的是,你要决定是否想吃这种食物。(唉,AR技术还不能捕捉到味道和气味。)点击相机里的盘子就能看到一个信息图表,它会解释每项选择的含义;此外还有一段简短的音频评语。一旦你定下了最合胃口的那项未来食物,我们想邀请你在标签为#econfood的话题下分享食物图像。来开怀大吃吧!


EDIBLE INSECTS

可食用昆虫


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


Our futuristic menu starts with breakfast: a waffle made of mealworm flour, served with baked, crispy mealworms, dry-roasted crickets, strawberries and chocolate sauce. Around 2bn people already eat insects; there are over 1,500 edible species, and they are rich in protein. Insects convert feed into food very efficiently, while producing few greenhouse-gas emissions. So they could be a sustainable source of protein in a warmer, more crowded world. But not everyone likes the idea of eating beetles, caterpillars or crickets. Most edible insects are caught in the wild, so it’s unclear whether they can be farmed at scale. And there has been little research on safety, toxicity and allergies associated with insect consumption. But perhaps the biggest obstacle to the wider consumption of insects is the “yuk” factor: many people in the West will happily eat shrimps or whitebait, but recoil at the idea of eating locusts. It’s worth remembering, though, that consumer tastes can change quickly. Just twenty years ago, few people in the West regularly ate sushi. If all else fails, insects could be used as an invisible ingredient in foods like pasta sauces. That might make lunching on locusts more palatable.

我们的未来菜单就从早餐开始吧:一份用粉虱粉做成的华夫饼,配上烤得脆脆的粉虱、干烤蟋蟀、草莓和巧克力酱。现已有约20亿人口食用昆虫;有超过1500种可食用的昆虫种类,且它们富含蛋白质。昆虫能非常有效地将饲料转化为食物,又几乎不会排放温室气体。因此,在一个气温更高、人口更多的世界中,昆虫能作为一种可持续的蛋白质来源。但并非每个人都喜欢食用甲虫、毛虫或蟋蟀这一想法。大多数可食用昆虫都是在野外捕获的,所以还不清楚它们能否被大规模养殖。而且,与昆虫消费相关的安全性、毒性和过敏问题还几乎尚未得到研究。不过对于更大范围的昆虫消费,最大的障碍也许是“反胃”这一因素:许多西方人将会很开心地去吃虾或银鱼,但对于吃蝗虫这一想法会畏缩不前。然而值得记住的是,消费者的口味会迅速变化。就在二十年前,西方国家还很少人会经常吃寿司。如果没有其他办法,昆虫就很可能被用作一种隐形食材,比如用在意大利面酱里。这可能会使得用蝗虫做成的午餐更加可口

palatable [‘pælətəbl] adj. acceptable to the taste or mind 美味的,可口的


ARTIFICIAL MEAT

人造肉


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


This may look like an ordinary hamburger, but it is in fact a Beyond Burger made of plant-based protein, including red beets to give it a meat-like colour and allow it to “bleed” . Artificial meat, whether made from plants or grown from animal cells in vats, is getting cheaper and more realistic, and could be much more sustainable than livestock farming. Today meat production uses huge amounts of water, and livestock emit more greenhouse gases than all the world’s vehicles. They also take up a quarter of the planet’s available land. So making artificial meat could be much more environmentally friendly—and less cruel to animals, 65bn of which are killed every year for food. But although the price of production has fallen dramatically, it still costs three times more than real meat. And if attitudes turned decisively against meat, that could threaten the livelihoods of 1.3bn people who depend on livestock farming for employment and food security—potentially a much bigger threat to employment than automation. But there is no question that artificial meat has real potential.

人造肉或许看起来就像一个普通的汉堡,但实际上它是一种由植物蛋白组成的未来汉堡,成分有红色的甜菜,这让它显现出肉一样的颜色,而且汁液流出就像是“流血”一样。无论是由植物组成还是由容器中的动物细胞生长而成的人造肉,现在正变得更便宜、更现实,而且比畜牧业更具可持续性。如今,肉类生产需要用到大量水资源,并且,牲畜所排放的温室气体比全世界所有的交通工具排放的都要多。它们同时也占据了全球四分之一的可用土地。因此,生产人造肉有可能更加环保——对动物也没那么残忍,每年被杀害用于生产食品的动物数量有650亿之多。但是,尽管人造肉的生产成本已经显著下降,仍是普通肉类生产成本的四倍。而且,如果人们都坚决反对食用真肉,那么对于13亿依靠畜牧业来保障就业和食品安全的人口来说,他们的生计很可能受到威胁——比自动化对就业造成的威胁要大得多。但毫无疑问的是,人造肉确实有发展潜力。


SPIRULINA

螺旋藻


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


A form of algae that thrives in the highly alkaline lakes of Africa, Mexico and Myanmar, spirulina is the wonder-food that has never quite taken off. Spirulina powder is 60% protein by weight, and can be mixed into other foods, as shown here with cookies, or taken as a food-supplement pill. Dried cakes made from spirulina, called dihe, are a traditional food in Chad, where spirulina is included in most meals. Growing spirulina in tanks can yield 20 times more protein per unit area than soyabeans, and more than 200 times more than beef, while using much less water. But scaling up production in open tanks is hard, because as the algae blooms form, they prevent sunlight penetrating deeper into the water. And some algae species are toxic, so ensuring purity is vital. The United Nations has endorsed spirulina as a promising food for the future—back in 1974. So far, spirulina remains the food of the perpetual future.

螺旋藻是一种大量生长在非洲、墨西哥和缅甸的高度碱性湖泊的藻类,它是一种特效食品,不过还从未真正流行起来。螺旋藻粉末中蛋白质含量为60%,可跟其他食物混合食用,如图所示,跟曲奇混合,或者作为保健药片食用。dihe,一种用螺旋藻制成的脱水蛋糕,是乍得的传统食物,乍得的大部分菜肴都含有螺旋藻。用水箱养殖螺旋藻,其蛋白质的单位面积产量能比大豆多二十倍,在水量更少的情况下,甚至比牛肉的蛋白质产量多两百多倍。但在开放式水箱中实现规模化生产是件难事,因为随着藻类大量繁殖,它们会阻止阳光穿透到更深层的水里。而且有些藻类是有毒的,因此保证螺旋藻的纯度至关重要。早在1974年,联合国就已认可螺旋藻为具有前景的未来食物。到目前为止,螺旋藻仍是永久不变的未来食物。


MEAL-REPLACEMENT SHAKES

替餐奶昔


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


Why eat conventional food at all, when you can get all the nutrition you need from a shake or snack bar? Such meal-replacement products, which are growing in popularity, provide a nutritionally balanced meal you can consume quickly. They let athletes, slimmers and astronauts monitor their dietary intake precisely. And if you’re an entrepreneur running a Silicon Valley startup or a scientist exploring the surface of Mars, do you really have time to cook spaghetti or prepare a curry? To techy types, this seems much more efficient and futuristic. But unless you’re mega-rich, it can be an expensive way to save a little time. The implications of long-term consumption are unclear, and many of the health claims made about meal-replacement products are unsubstantiated. And why abandon the pleasures of real food for something that tastes boring and may still leave you feeling hungry? You’d have to have a very good reason.

如果我们从一杯奶昔或一块能量棒就能获取身体所需的全部营养,那为什么还要吃常规的食物呢?这类替餐产品正越来越受欢迎,它们能为人们提供营养均衡的一餐,同时人们又能迅速吃完。它们还能使运动员、减肥一族和宇航员监督自己的饮食,按照精确的份量摄入营养。如果你是个在硅谷经营一家创业公司的企业家,或者是在火星表面进行探索的科学家,你真的会有时间煮意大利面或者准备一份咖喱餐吗? 对科技人员而言,替餐食品效率更高,也与未来的生活更匹配。但除非你是超级富翁,否则花这么多钱只能节省这么点时间,代价就未免太高了。长期消费形成的影响目前尚未明确,许多关于替餐产品的健康主张也未经证实。那么我们为何要为了一些味道不好、且有可能吃不饱的东西而放弃享受真正食物的乐趣呢?我们必须要拿出一个非常好的理由。

unsubstantiated [,ʌnsəb’stænʃɪetɪd] adj. unsupported by other evidence 未经证实的,无事实根据的


3D-PRINTED FOOD

3D打印食物


【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


This unusual platter is made of 3D-printed red-pepper hummus. It was created using a printer made by Natural Machines, and is here served with smoked black cod, cherry tomatoes, greens and sprouts. Proponents of 3D food-printing imagine loading a machine with capsules of ingredients, like the cartridges that go into an inkjet printer. It would then heat, cook and combine these ingredients into finished foodstuffs. Food printers could potentially prepare a wide range of meals from a handful of basic ingredients, which could be handy for time-pressed parents, the elderly, and astronauts: no wonder NASA has funded the development of a pizza-printer. Ugly vegetables and other food that currently goes to waste could be turned into raw materials for printing. New shapes and textures would become possible, and it would be easy to cater to special dietary and nutritional needs. But 3D food printers are currently slow and expensive, and can print only a limited range of ingredients that can be squeezed through nozzles. Your local pizza-delivery service has nothing to worry about just yet; the food replicator in “Star Trek” is still a long way off.

这份特别的拼盘是由3D打印的红辣椒鹰嘴豆泥做成的。它由西班牙自然机器公司生产的打印机制成,此处还用了烟熏黑鳕鱼、樱桃番茄、绿叶蔬菜和芽菜作为搭配。3D食物打印的支持者的设想是:在机器中装上一个盛着食材的胶囊,就像喷墨打印机里的墨盒那样。然后机器会进行加热、烹煮,将这些食材混合制成食物成品。食物打印机可能具备相关潜力,能用为数不多的基础食材准备出各种各样的食物,这对一些时间紧迫的父母、老年人和宇航员来说是比较便捷的:怪不得NASA已投资披萨打印机的研发。样子丑陋的蔬菜以及其他当前被浪费的食物有可能被转化为打印的原材料。新的食物外表以及纹理都是有可能出现的,同时,3D打印食物还能轻易满足特殊食谱要求和营养需求。但3D食物打印机目前运作比较慢,费用高昂,而且只能打印可以被喷嘴挤压的食材,种类有限。所以你家当地的披萨外卖服务暂时还没什么可担心的;我们离生产出《星际迷航》里面的食物复制机还远着呢。


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【经济学人】未来的食物——没有对比就没有伤害


<原文链接:https://www.economist.com/the-world-if/2018/07/07/the-future-of-food-served-up-right-here-in-augmented-reality >

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