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【经济学人】逆袭的小米,突围的雷军

【经济学人】逆袭的小米,突围的雷军

成立于2010年的小米,是继苹果,三星,华为之后第四家拥有手机芯片自研能力的科技公司。小米开放的智能硬件生态链希望能够连接生活中更多的场景,为人们带来便利。坚持“为发烧而生”的小米,已经俘获了大量的米粉。这一次小米宣布上市计划,你会pick它吗?


【经济学人】逆袭的小米,突围的雷军

译者:何翔宇

校对:刘   璠

策划:刘   璠

Little rice, lots of dough 

小米,财源广进


本文选自 The Economist | 取经号原创翻译

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Reinvigorated, the world’s fourth-largest smartphone-maker eyes a giant IPO 

再起航,世界第四大智能手机制造商选择上市,野心勃勃


In China no company achieved $1bn in annual revenue as quickly as Xiaomi did, in the year following the launch of its first smartphone in 2011. Chinese media initially nicknamed Xiaomi the “Apple of the East” (its literal translation is “little rice”). That was a stretch, even in good times. But within another two years the affordable-handset-maker became the world’s most valuable startup, worth $46bn. 

在中国没有哪家公司能像小米一样,在2011年发布首款智能手机后的一年内,就迅速获得十亿美元的年收入。中国媒体最初把小米称为“东方的苹果”(小米直译成英文是“little rice”)。这个名头有点夸大,即使是在小米发展势头不错的时候。两年后,这个价格亲民的手机制造商成为了世界最有价值的创业公司,估值460亿美元。


Analysts reckon that it now wants to raise up to $10bn in an initial public offering (IPO) on Hong Kong’s stock exchange which was announced on May 3rd. (Its filing documents disclose neither the valuation that it is seeking, nor a fundraising target.) That could afford it a very generous valuation of as much as $80bn—not far off the $91bn market capitalisation of Baidu, China’s biggest search engine and one of the country’s three “BAT” tech titans alongside Alibaba and Tencent. 

5月3日,小米正式向港交所提交了首次公开招股(IPO)申请。分析师预测小米欲募集一百亿美元(小米招股书中没有披露估值和融资目标),这就有望达到可观的800亿美元的估值,接近百度的910亿美元。百度是中国最大的搜索引擎,也是中国三大互联网巨头之一,其它两家分别是阿里巴巴和腾讯。


Yet only 18 months ago such talk would have seemed outlandish. In 2016 Xiaomi’s sales fell sharply and it tumbled from first to fifth place among Chinese handset-makers. Lei Jun, its founder, blamed clogged supply chains at a time of rapid growth. Many thought it had overstretched, launching internet-connected gadgets, from rice cookers to drones, to create an ecosystem of devices that could be controlled from smartphones. Sales of these gizmos and Xiaomi’s low-cost but high-specification handsets accounted for 91% of its $18bn in revenues last year, yet they made only wafer-thin gross profits of 8.8%, a small fraction of the 39% that Apple makes on its iPhones. 

回到18个月前,人们绝不会想到小米能有如此反转。2016年,小米销量明显下滑,市场份额也从国产手机制造商排名第一的位置跌到了第五。小米创始人雷军将原因归结为快速扩张造成的供应链堵塞。有人会觉得小米涉足的领域太多,从电饭煲到无人机,它想打造一个互联网智能生态系统。这些衍生产品和性价比极高的手机的销售额占据了小米去年180亿美元收入的91%,但却仅仅为小米贡献了8.8%的毛利润。与之相比,苹果从iPhone中获得的毛利润为39%。

outlandish /aʊt’lændɪʃ/ adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual (看或听起来很)古怪的, 奇异的

wafer-thin /’weifəθin/ adj. very thin 极薄的,很薄的


Since then, Xiaomi has bounced back again. At a launch event in Shanghai in March for the MIX2S phone, Mr Lei strode on stage in gleaming white trainers in a stadium filled with Mi-Fans, as the company calls its devotees, claiming that his newest smartphone had “crushed” Apple’s iPhoneX. There was much cooing at the unveiling of the Mi Gaming Laptop, which allows users to place a food-delivery order mid-game with a programmable button. 

从那以后,小米开始复苏。今年三月份在上海举行的MIX2S新品发布会中,雷军穿着一双白色运动鞋大步走上台演讲,台下坐满了米粉(小米对其支持者的称呼)。雷军称这款新的智能手机已经超过了苹果的iPhone X。随后发布的小米游戏本更是引起了现场的骚动。该游戏本让用户可以在玩游戏的间歇一键预定外卖。


A resurgent Xiaomi wagers that its Mi-Fans, to whom it has regularly turned online for ideas and feedback, are loyal, and that “amazing products” at “honest prices” will encourage more people to snap up its phones. It says that already 1.4m users own more than five of its hardware products. By 2022 it expects to generate $10bn in annual revenues from 1,000 physical Mi stores that sell its phones, laptops and some of its 300-odd lifestyle gadgets (mainly built by startups in which Xiaomi has stakes). Last month Mr Lei announced, to the horror of some potential investors, that he would aim to keep overall net profit margins for all of this hardware under 5%. For a long time his approach has been to make money on internet services by luring users into the Xiaomi universe with unbeatable handset prices. 

复苏的小米相信,米粉的忠诚度很高。小米会定期在网上向米粉征求意见和听取反馈。此外,质高价优的特点也鼓励更多的人前来购买小米产品。小米称已经有140万用户购买了五件以上的硬件产品。到2022年,小米预计可以从1000家小米实体店——小米之家中获得100亿美元的收入。这些实体店售卖手机、笔记本以及300多种生活家居产品(主要由小米占股的初创公司生产)。上个月,雷军宣布小米的硬件总净利润率将不超过5%,这令一些潜在的投资者感到震惊。长久以来,雷军的方法都是用其最具性价比的手机价格把消费者吸引到小米的阵营中来,从而通过互联网服务赚钱。


The firm does indeed make its fattest gross margins, of 60%, through services and ads on Xiaomi-developed apps that are preloaded on to its home-grown MIUI operating system, a tweaked version of Android. These include Mi Music for streaming audio, for instance, and its own Mi App Store. The average revenue per user of MIUI doubled between 2015 and 2017. A banker who has helped prepare its listing sees big moneymaking potential in India, where Xiaomi overtook Samsung at the end of last year as the country’s top-selling smartphone-maker, a major reason for its bounce-back. Last year 28% of Xiaomi’s sales came from foreign markets, up from 6% in 2015. Remarkably, in the first quarter of 2018, it made over half of its sales abroad, among the first of China’s firms to do so. 

MIUI  MIUI是小米公司旗下基于Android系统深度优化、定制、开发的第三方手机操作系统,也是小米的第一个产品。从2010年8月16日首个内测版发布至今,MIUI目前已经拥有国内外2.8亿用户,覆盖55种语言,支持142个国家与地区。小米通过提供网络服务和在小米开发的应用里发布广告获得了巨大的利润,高达60%。这些应用预先内置在自主研发的MIUI操作系统里——安卓系统的优化版本。这些应用包括了小米音乐和小米商城。2015年至2017年,MIUI的每用户平均收入翻了一番。参与筹划小米上市的一位银行家称小米在印度有很好的前景。去年底小米超越三星成为了印度智能手机销量最高的厂商,这也是小米得以反弹的一个主要原因。去年,小米28%的销售额来自于海外市场,高于2015年的6%。值得一提的是,2018年,小米第一季度的销售额一半来自于海外,成为了中国公司中的佼佼者。


Possible snags abound. Huawei, a domestic rival, grew faster than Xiaomi in India in the first three months of this year. Neil Shah of Counterpoint Research in Mumbai says that in foreign markets, where Google’s services are not blocked (unlike in China), Xiaomi will find it hard to sustain its services-based profit model. Mr Lei had been hoping to take his phones to America this year, but as troubles mount for Chinese peers such as Huawei and ZTE, it is “now unlikely to pour resources into such a tough market”, says Shelly Jing of IDC, another market-research firm. At home it will be under pressure to increase the average price—and quality—of its phones (currently 881 yuan, or $138) as veteran smartphone buyers are tempted by its rivals’ higher-end models. Excluding one-time charges, Xiaomi’s net income was a relatively modest $700m last year. 

挑战在所难免。国内的竞争对手华为今年前三个月在印度的增速超越了小米。Counterpoint Research驻孟买的Neil Shah表示,在谷歌服务没有被禁止的海外市场,小米基于服务的盈利模式可能会碰壁。雷军希望今年把小米带到美国,但由于华为和中兴在美国遇到了不少麻烦,因而来自另一家市场分析公司IDC的Shelly Jing称小米“不太可能把资源倾注到这个有着重重阻力的市场”。在国内,资深手机买家被小米竞争对手的高端机型所吸引。小米面临着增加手机平均价格和提升手机品质的压力(目前的平均价格是881元,相当于138美金)。除去一次性费用,小米去年的净利润是7亿美金,表现相对平淡。


If the latest estimates are accurate, this flotation will be the biggest IPO since Alibaba fetched $21.8bn in New York in 2014. Xiaomi is eager to prove to investors that it is an internet company, and so deserves higher valuations than a simple hardware firm. It claims that more than 100m devices have been connected to its “internet-of-things” platform. Its array of investments in over 210 companies lend it the air of an incubator. Fu Sheng, who founded Cheetah Mobile, a leading maker of utility apps for smartphones, says that BAT may soon become “ATM”. M for Xiaomi would replace B for Baidu. 

如果最新的分析是正确的,这次小米的公开募股将会是继阿里巴巴2014年募集到218亿美金在纽交所上市后的最大的IPO。小米急于向投资者证明它是一个互联网公司,值得比单一的硬件公司更高的估值。小米称它的物联网平台已经连接了超过1亿台设备,并投资了超过210家公司,俨然成为了一个孵化器。猎豹移动(一家行业领先的智能手机应用开发公司)创始人傅盛称,不久之后,BAT可能会变成ATM。M代表小米,取代B——百度。

incubator /’ɪŋkjʊbeɪtə/ n. apparatus consisting of a box designed to maintain a constant temperature by the use of a thermostat; used for chicks or premature infants孵化器,(用于放置早产婴儿的)恒温箱


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【经济学人】逆袭的小米,突围的雷军

<原文链接:https://www.economist.com/business/2018/05/12/xiaomi-eyes-a-giant-chinese-ipo>

始发于微信公众号: 取经号JTW

2 Comments

  1. jonas jonas
    Google Chrome 67.0.3396.79 Google Chrome 67.0.3396.79 Windows 7 x64 Edition Windows 7 x64 Edition
    Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/67.0.3396.79 Safari/537.36

    最后一段的 estimates 应该翻译成“估价”啊。

    • woohow woohow
      Safari 11.1 Safari 11.1 Mac OS X  10.13.4 Mac OS X 10.13.4
      Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_13_4) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/11.1 Safari/605.1.15

      我觉得预计比较好。

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