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【时代周刊】让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”

【时代周刊】让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”


二战结束后,男人们开始恐慌:“我们要被女人取代了吗?”所有的是非由此开始。今天,在民权法案通过半个多世纪后,问题依旧存在,不减当年。黑人、女性、粉色贫民窟,所有的敏感词都指向一个地方:偏见。五十多年来,想要纠正偏见的声音此消彼长,想要纠正偏见的培训层出不穷,但似乎都见效甚微。为什么呢?问题的关键,在于意识。


让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”

【时代周刊】让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”

作者:Joanne Lipman

译者:文诗韵

校对:李林治

编辑:李林治


How Diversity Training Infuriates Men and Fails Women

让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”


本文选自 TIME | 取经号原创翻译

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DECADES BEFORE ANITA HILL, Gretchen Carlson or #MeToo, American companies dreamed up “diversity training,” typically a course that lasts anywhere from an hour to a couple of days, with the goal of wiping out biases against women and others from underrepresented groups. For most of its history, diversity training has been pretty much a cudgel, pounding white men into submission with a mix of finger-wagging and guilt-mongering.

早在安妮塔·希尔、格蕾琴·卡尔森的性骚扰案件,以及#MeToo运动之前的几十年,美国公司就设想过一种“多元化培训”。这种培训往往时长从一小时到几天不等,旨在摒除针对女性和其他弱势群体的偏见。在大多数时候,多元化培训更像是一根悬在白人男性头上的大棒,掺杂着批评指责和令其内疚的情绪打压着他们。

Anital Hill 安妮塔·希尔: 1991年,俄克拉何马州大学的法律教授Anita Hill 在国会听证会上出面指控当时刚被布什总统提名担任联邦最高法院大法官的Clarence Thomas对其性骚扰,导致后者差点失去担任大法官的机会。

Gretchen Carlson 格蕾琴·卡尔森: 2016年,前任新闻节目主播Gretchen Carlson公开曝光电视台的性骚扰问题,去年六月,在Gretchen Carlson与电视台合同期满不久后,她将前任Fox新闻总裁以及CEO Roger Ailes告上法庭。随后,更有20多名女性对Ailes提起性骚扰指控,Alies因此于8月辞职。

MeToo: 2017年10月哈维·韦恩斯坦性骚扰事件后在社交媒体上广泛传播的一个主题标签,用于遣责性侵犯与性骚扰行为。社会运动人士塔拉纳·伯克在此之前数年便开始使用这一短语,后经女演员艾莉莎·米兰诺的传播而广为人知。米兰诺鼓励女性在推特上公开被侵犯的经历,以使人们能认识到这些行为的普遍性。自此之后,数百万人使用了这一标签来公开她们的不快经历,其中也包括许多知名人士。

来源:维基百科

 

The first training programs surfaced in the 1950s, after men returned from World War II and were appalled and perplexed to find women in their offices. After the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the training took on more urgency. Within a decade, it had morphed into a knee-jerk response to legal actions, after a series of high-profile sex discrimination suits, including one by the women of Newsweek magazine, who were stranded in a pink ghetto. “Women don’t write at Newsweek. If you want to be a writer, go someplace else,” the bosses told them, according to Lynn Povich, one of the 46 women who sued.

上世纪50年代,当二战结束,男人们归来时,他们惊恐困惑地发现女人在他们的办公室里,于是第一次培训由此开始。在1964年民权法案通过后,培训变得更为紧急。10年间,在一系列引人注目的性别歧视案件——包括《新闻周刊》一位犹如被困“粉色贫民窟”的女性——曝光在聚光灯下后,培训变成了对法律诉讼的自然反应,。据《新闻周刊》46位起诉女性之一的林恩·波维奇所说,老板们都跟她们说:“女人不能在《新闻周刊》写作。如果你想当作家,到别处去。”

The Civil Riht Act of 1964: 1964年民權法案,美國國會於1964年通過的法案,內容規範了美國境內不得採取種族隔離,也規定對黑人、少數民族與婦女的歧視性作為是非法。它結束了美國自立國以來長期存在於學校、工作場所及公共空間的黑白種族隔離政策,被認為是人權進步的里程碑。初期授予法案的執行力量較為薄弱,但後來逐漸得到支持。

pink ghetto:粉色贫民窟。粉色贫民窟意味女性较多的职业,也称“粉领”,如护士,教师,秘书等。同时也表示这些职业中的女性无法升至董事等高层职位。

appall /ə’pɔːl/ v. to make somebody feel shock, horror, or disgust 使惊恐

perplex /pər’pleks/ v. to puzzle or confuse somebody, especially causing doubt 使困惑

 

By the time I entered the workforce in the 1980s, the Newsweek suit and others like it—led by women at TIME, the Associated Press and the New York Times—were mostly forgotten. Diversity training had taken a backseat too. I don’t recall ever hearing the phrase until the 1990s. By then, it had been reconstituted as a feel-good exercise in consciousness-raising. White men were told they should include women and minorities because it’s the right thing to do. It was all about the importance of “inclusion.”

到了上世纪80年代我开始工作时,《新闻周刊》的诉讼案,以及那些由《时代》、《美联社》、《纽约时报》的工作女性所发起的诉讼案,大多已被遗忘了。多元化培训也被放到了次要位置。90年代前,我甚至都想不起来我曾听过那些词汇。在那时,多元化培训被重新调整为一种让人感觉良好的活动,试图唤起人们的多元化意识。白人男性被告知他们应当接纳女性以及少数群体,因为那样做才是对的。一切都是为了展现“包容”的重要性。

 

But here’s the thing about diversity training: it doesn’t work.

但多元化培训的问题在于:它并不奏效。

 

Harvard organizational sociology professor Frank Dobbin and others have since delved into why such programs have failed. Dobbin combed through thousands of data points and found that for white women and black men and women in management positions, it actually made things worse. That’s right: companies that introduced diversity training would actually employ more women and black men today if they had never had diversity training at all. He singled out three situations in which training is doomed to fail: when it’s mandatory; when it so much as mentions the law; or when it is specific to managers, as opposed to being offered to all employees. Unfortunately, he found, about 75% of firms with diversity-training programs fall into at least one of those categories.

自意识到这一问题后,哈佛组织社会学教授弗兰克·杜宾和其他研究者就着力研究原因。杜宾梳理了数以千计的数据后发现,对于在管理层的白人女性、黑人男性以及黑人女性来说,培训反而让事情变得更糟了。没错,过去引入了多元化培训的公司,如果从来没有那么做,如今也会聘用更多的女性和黑人男性。他发现在三种情况下,培训是注定失败的:当培训是强制性的; 当培训涉及到法律;当培训只针对管理人员,而非全体职工。不幸的是,杜宾同时发现75%接受过多元化培训项目的公司至少符合以上三种情况中的一种。

delve/dɛlv/v. to investigate or research something thoroughly in order to obtain information 研究

 

Perhaps more to the point is the fact that the training infuriates the people it’s intended to educate: white men. “Many interpreted the key learning point as having to walk on eggshells around women and minorities—choosing words carefully so as not to offend. Some surmised that it meant white men were villains, still others assume that they would lose their jobs to minorities and women, while others concluded that women and minorities were simply too sensitive,” executives Rohini Anand and Mary-Frances Winters noted in a 2008 analysis of diversity training in the Academy of Management Learning & Education.

可能更关键的一点在于,这种培训恰恰会激怒它想要教育的对象:白人男性。“许多人都认为在培训中学习的关键点,就是如履薄冰般对待女性和少数族群,小心翼翼地选择用词,以防冒犯他们。一些人就此推测说,白人男性都是恶棍,一部分人认为他们的工作可能会被少数群体及女性夺去,而其他人则认为女性和少数群体只是过于敏感罢了。” 高管罗希尼·阿南德和玛丽·弗朗西丝·温特斯在2008年版美国管理学会《学习与教育》一书中的多元化培训章节分析指出。

surmise /sə(rˈ)maɪz/ v. to conclude that sth. is the case on the basis of only limited evidence or intuitive feeling 推测

 

Training done badly can also damage otherwise cordial relationships. Women and minorities often leave training sessions thinking their co-workers must be even more biased than they had previously imagined. In a more troubling development, it turns out that telling people about others’ biases can actually heighten their own. Researchers have found that when people believe everybody else is biased, they feel free to be prejudiced themselves. In one study, a group of managers was told that stereotypes are rare, while another group was told that stereotypes are common. Then both groups were asked to evaluate male and female job candidates. The managers who were told that stereotypes are common were more biased against the women. In a similar study, managers didn’t want to hire women and found them unlikable.

此外,培训不得当也会破坏原本真挚的人际关系。女性和少数族群经常在培训中途离去,并想着同事原来比她们所想象的更加心怀偏见。更令人烦恼的是,事实证明,谈及外人的偏见会进一步加深自己心中的偏见。研究者发现当人们觉得别人都心怀偏见时,他们自己就会理所当然地心怀偏见。在一次研究中,一组管理者被告知刻板印象很少存在,而另一组管理者则被告知刻板印象普遍存在。然后两组管理者都被要求评估男性和女性求职者。被告知刻板印象普遍存在的管理者,对女性求职者所怀的偏见更深。在另一个类似的试验中,这些管理者也并不想雇佣女性员工,认为她们并不受欢迎。

prejudice /prej·u·dice/v. to make somebody form an opinion about somebody or something inadvance, especially an irrational one, based on insufficient knowledge 偏见

 

The evidence is damning. Yet companies continue to invest heavily in diversity training, spending, by one estimate, almost $8 billion a year. It has led to what the Economist dubbed “diversity fatigue.” In a recent article, the magazine suggested that 12 of the most terrifying words in the English language are I’m from human resources, and I’m here to organize a diversity workshop.

这些证据确凿。然而公司还在持续地在多元化培训上大量投资, 每年投资金额估计可达80亿美金。对于这一现象,经济学人将其戏称为“多元化疲劳”。 最近的一篇文章指出,在英文中最糟糕的一句话是:“我是来自人力资源部门,我来是为了组织一个多元化的研讨会。” 

 

Now companies are searching for more effective, less infuriating alternatives. Take tech firms, which have come under fire for being among the worst offenders when it comes to bias. The irony is that they have also been at the forefront of devising new ways to combat it. Can they turn around a culture where sexism has not only been tolerated but in many cases celebrated?

如今,公司正在寻找一种更有效,而且不那么容易激怒人的替代方法。比如,当谈到偏见时,科技公司就常被抨击为最糟糕的冒犯者。但讽刺的是,在设计新方法来解决问题时,走在最前沿的也是科技公司。那么他们是否能够转变这种能够容忍,甚至歌颂性别歧视的文化呢?

 

I sat down with Brian Welle, director of people analytics at Google, who is tasked with helping lead the latest trend: unconscious-bias training. We all have prejudices buried so deeply inside of us that we don’t know they exist. Unconscious-bias training is supposed to arm employees with the tools they need to recognize it and neutralize these prejudices. His role, Welle told me, was to ensure that “every decision we made, from hiring to promotion to pay to performance, didn’t have an unintended bias” against women or other underrepresented groups.

我和布莱恩·威尔一起坐下。布莱恩·威尔是谷歌人事分析部主管,负责协助引领最新的趋势:无意识偏见培训。我们在内心深处都有着一些甚至连我们自己都不知道的偏见。无意识偏见训练,是为了帮助员工掌握他们所需的方法,从而意识到自己内心的偏见,并使偏见趋向中立。威尔告诉我,他的任务是“确保我们所做的每一个决定,从雇佣、升迁到绩效,都不存在针对女性以及其他弱势群体的无意识偏见。”

 

Welle seized on an insight that has proved to be key for anyone who is trying to wipe out hidden biases: if we believe that everyone around us is trying hard to fight against those stereotypes and prejudices, we’ll do the same. Call it peer pressure, or call it a pack mentality. Whatever it is, it works. Our own biases disappear.

威尔所洞察的这一点,被证明是所有人在摒除偏见时所要注意的核心点:如果我们相信我们身边的所有人都在努力跟偏见、刻板印象斗争,那么我们也会这么做。我们可以将其称为同辈压力,或者是团体性思维。无论名字叫什么,它奏效了。我们自身的偏见消除了。

wipe out to destroy large numbers of things or kill large numbers of people, especially suddenly and violently 消灭


Welle and his team ultimately developed a workshop for Google employees that strives to mimic those conditions. In a typical session, he explains the science, so that employees can understand that yes, we’re all biased, and yes, we’re all trying to fight it, and don’t worry, it isn’t your fault. He focuses on four ways to “interrupt” bias, all of which boil down to one word: awareness.

威尔和他的团队最终为谷歌员工设计了一个工作坊来模仿这些场景。在其中一个环节,他解释了原理,这样员工就会明白,是的,我们都是心怀偏见的,是的,我们都在努力地去消除它,不要担心,这不是你的错。威尔着重提出四种方式来“打断”偏见,所有方法最终都指向一个关键:意识(人们是否会意识到偏见)。

 

He encourages employees to use consistent criteria to measure success and to rely on data rather than on gut reactions when evaluating others. He urges them to notice how they react to subtle cues. Finally, he encourages employees to call out bias when they see it, even if the culprit is their own boss.

威尔鼓励员工始终采用一致的标准衡量什么是成功,并且在评价他人时,更多地去倚赖数据,而不是直觉。他要求员工在看到隐晦的暗示时,去关注自己作何反应。最后,他还鼓励员工在看到偏见时大声说出来,即使犯错的人是他们的老板。

 

To be sure, unconscious-bias training isn’t a cure-all. Last year, a male Google engineer penned an anti-diversity “manifesto” protesting such efforts, and later called the firm’s training “just a lot of shaming.” The company fired him—and he hit back in January, suing Google for discrimination against conservative white males. Google is also fighting U.S. Department of Labor allegations of “extreme” underpayment to female Google employees, which the company denies.

有一点可以肯定,无意识偏见训练并不是万能药。去年,谷歌一位男工程师写下反多样性的“宣言”,抗议公司为此所做的一切努力,并随后声称公司的这些培训“只会令人感到十分羞愧。”谷歌开除了这位工程师,而他也在一月份给出了自己的反击:起诉谷歌歧视保守的白人男性。谷歌同时还在应对美国劳动部对于谷歌给女性员工的工资“严重”不足这一指控,而谷歌否认这样的指控。

 

Still, Google’s seminar is a model that other companies have adopted. In just the past few years, this kind of training has exploded at companies across the country. At Google, about 75% of its 75,000 employees have taken the workshop, and in 2014 the company spent $114 million on its various diversity programs.

尽管如此,谷歌的工作坊模式仍然被其他公司所采纳。在过去的短短几年间,全美效仿这种模式培训的公司数量激增。在谷歌的75,000名员工中,有75%的员工接受过这一培训。在2014年,公司在多元化培训项目上花费了1.14亿美元。

 

At least 20% of companies in the U.S. now offer unconscious-bias training, from the Royal Bank of Canada to consultants McKinsey & Co. (“We do that big time,” says its top executive, Dominic Barton) and defense contractor BAE Systems. Almost all of the big tech firms already offer it, including Facebook, Salesforce and VMware, with more joining by the day. By some estimates, 50% of all American corporations will offer unconscious-bias training in the not-too distant future.

在美国,现在至少有20%的公司在提供无意识偏见训练,包括加拿大皇家银行、麦肯锡咨询公司(其最高执行官鲍达民·巴顿说,“我们大范围培训”)以及国防承包商英国航太系统公司。几乎所有的大型技术公司都已经提供这一训练,包括脸书、赛富时、威睿等,这一队伍每天都在不断壮大。据估计,在不久的将来将有50%的美国公司会提供该训练。

 

Undoubtedly, the popularity of these programs has soared in part because they intentionally don’t cast blame. The appeal of the training is that, unlike old-fashioned diversity training, it’s intended to be guilt-free. However, how much companies talk about equality and inclusiveness matters little compared with how they act. Incentives speak louder than any speeches by the CEO, or bias training workshops, or posters on a wall.

毋庸置疑的是,这些项目剧增的一部分原因,是因为它们有意避开责备的环节。这一训练吸引人的地方在于,它与过往那些老旧的偏见培训项目不同,它希望受训者无需感到内疚。然而,无论公司说了多少平等包容,重要的是他们如何行动。激励措施要比任何CEO的演讲、偏见培训的工作坊、或者墙上的宣传海报都来的有效。 

soar /sɔr/ to increase rapidly in number, volume, size, or amount 剧增

 

For Google, as for others, one key incentive came in the form of family leave. In 2007, Google sweetened its leave policy, extending paid maternity leave to nearly five months, from three. The result was immediate. Attrition rates for women who had babies plunged by 50%.

对于谷歌以及其他公司而言,激励机制的一个重要体现,在于家庭假期。2007年,谷歌进一步放宽它的家庭假期政策,将带薪产假从3个月延长至将近5个月。效果立竿见影。有孩子的女性员工流失率骤降50%。 

 

That set off an arms race of sorts, with a growing number of tech firms offering gender neutral paid parental leave to men as well as women, including Twitter (20 weeks), Etsy(26 weeks), Facebook (four months) and Change.org (18 weeks). Netflix and Virgin Management increased paid parental leave to a full year. The practice is now spreading beyond the tech industry to other industries as well.

这仿佛是开展了军备竞赛一样,越来越多的科技公司向男性及女性员工提供无性别差异的带薪产假,包括推特(20周)、手工艺品交易网站Etsy(26周)、脸书(4个月)、请愿联署网 (18周)等。网飞和维珍管理则将带薪产假延长至一整年。这一现象现在已跨越科技行业,在其他行业内也开始传播流行。

 

The results of these changes are still unfolding. But they point to a hard truth. For men as well as women, it doesn’t matter how sincere companies are in embracing diversity if their own policies work against it—and in particular if they make it impossible to balance work with family. America lags far behind most industrial countries in this respect. It is the only industrialized country in the world that doesn’t offer paid parental leave. At least 96 other countries offer not only guaranteed maternity leave but paternity leave as well, including Gambia, Armenia, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Togo and Mauritius. Without broad policy changes that allow parents in every industry and at every level to have access to affordable health care and child care, the rest doesn’t matter.

这些变化所带来的影响仍在逐渐显现,但它们都表明了一个不争的事实。无论男女,如果公司自身的政策与(性别平等)理念背道而驰,尤其是当公司的政策无法使员工在工作与家庭之间平衡,那么不管公司多么真诚地推广多元化也无济于事。美国在这一方面的表现落后于大多数工业国家。美国是世界上唯一一个不提供带薪产假的工业国家。而在其他至少96个国家,包括像冈比亚、亚美尼亚、白俄罗斯、阿塞拜疆、多哥、毛里求斯,不仅保障产假,还保障陪产假(父亲照顾新生儿的休假)。如果没有大范围的政策变更,以保障在各行各业以及各个职位的人都能享受到可负担的医疗保健和儿童保育,那么其余的一切都不重要。


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【时代周刊】让男性愤怒,让女性失望的“多元化培训”

<原文链接:http://time.com/5118035/diversity-training-infuriates-men-fails-women/>

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