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【经济学人】腾讯苹果展开较量



微信祭出小程序,苹果公司封杀微信iOS赞赏功能。两家互联网巨头为何硬碰硬?利益博弈,一场战争已经打响。蹲在战壕里,抬眼望去,炮弹呼啸着从头顶飞过……


腾讯苹果展开较量


译者:武守晗

校对:谢晓羽

策划:戴秀平



WeChat launches “mini-programmes”; Apple bans tipping

微信推出小程序;苹果封杀“赞赏”功能。


本文选自 The Economist | 取经号原创翻译

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IN MOST of the world, the success of Apple’s “walled garden” of proprietary software has two elements. First, its attractive services: users tend to be addicted to its iTunes music shop and iBooks store. Second, the complexities involved in switching from an iPhone to another device without losing music files or having to re-download apps.

在世界的大多数地方,苹果公司专有软件的“围墙花园”之所以成功得益于两点。首先,苹果提供了有吸引力的服务:用户往往“沉迷”于iTunes音乐商店和iBooks商店,无法自拔。其次则是从iPhone传输数据到另一个设备而不会丢失音乐文件或不用重新下载应用程序这一技术的复杂性。

proprietary / prəˈpraɪətrɪ; US -terɪ; prəˋpraɪəˏtɛrɪ/ (of goods) manufactured and sold by a particular firm, usu under patent (指货物)独家制造和销售的,(通常指)专利的


Neither factor works as well in China. There, many of Apple’s services have not taken off. The American giant missed the boat on music sales in the country, reckons Matthew Brennan of China Channel, a technology consultancy. Its sales of books are blocked by the government.

但在中国这两点都行不通。苹果的许多服务在这里无法腾飞。在技术咨询公司中国频道任职的马修▪布雷男(Matthew Brennan)认为,美国巨人错过了搭乘音乐销售这艘大船。而且在中国卖书的生意已被政府封锁。


In addition, few would disagree that its messaging service is a flop and that Apple Pay, its mobile-payment offering, is irrelevant—its market share on the mainland is only 1%. A “genius” employee at an Apple store in Shanghai admits sheepishly that “iCloud doesn’t work very well in China.”

此外,没人会不同意苹果的讯息传递服务是彻底失败的,而且它的移动支付产品——“苹果付”几乎无人问津,其在大陆的市场份额只有1%。上海一家苹果商店的“天才”员工也面带窘色地承认:“iCloud在中国境况不佳。”

flop/ flɔp; flɑp/ total failure (of a book, play, etc)(书﹑戏剧等的)彻底失败.


And switching is a doddle in China, observes Ben Thompson of Stratechery, an industry newsletter. Nearly everyone uses WeChat, an app made by Tencent, one of China’s three big internet giants, for everything from social media to payments. Through WeChat it is easy to transfer photos, messages, contacts and payments history maintained on that app from one device to another.

行业通讯公司Stratechery的本·汤普森(Ben Thompson)认为:在中国,交换轻而易举。无论是社交还是支付,几乎所有人都使用微信。这是一款由中国三大互联网巨头之一腾讯推出的APP,通过它,你可以很轻松地通过微信将照片,消息,联系人和支付记录从一台设备转移到另一台。

doddle / ˏdɔdl; ˋdɑdl/ n [sing]  task or activity that is easily performed 轻而易举的任务或活动


No wonder that Apple’s retention rate among iPhone users, which tops 80% in America and Britain, is only 50% in China. That does not bode well for a key market. Apple’s revenues in greater China have nearly doubled since 2013, to $48.5bn in 2016, thanks in part to its mainland app store. App Annie, a research firm, reckons it is the world’s biggest Apple app store, as measured by revenue. But Apple’s results for the first quarter of the year showed total sales falling by some 14% in greater China compared with a year ago, the fifth consecutive quarter of decline. Canalys, a market-research firm, estimates that shipments of iPhones on the mainland plunged by a quarter in the first quarter.

所以iPhone用户的保有率在中国只有50%也就不足为奇了,而在美国和英国这一比率可以达到80%,中国大陆作为苹果的关键市场,苹果此番的前景并不乐观。自2013年以来,苹果在大中华区的收入几乎翻了一番,2016年达到485亿美元,这要归功于其在中国大陆的应用商店。一家研究公司App Annie认为,就收入而言,中国大陆的应用商店是世界上最大的苹果应用商店。但苹果今年第一季度的业绩显示,与去年同期相比,大中华区的销售总额下降了约14%,连续第五个季度下滑。市场研究公司Canalys预计第一季度中国大陆的iPhone出货量下滑了25%。


Hostilities have now broken out with Tencent. The two had co-existed happily: since richer Chinese prefer iPhones to Android phones, these devices are where WeChat made much of its money. But earlier this year, WeChat launched “mini-programmes,” a form of lightweight app that operates independently of Apple’s app store and robs it of revenues.

苹果腾讯已经处于敌对状态。这两家公司曾经愉快地共存:相比Android手机而言,富裕起来的中国人更喜欢iPhone手机,微信从这些iPhone用户手中收益颇丰。但是今年早些时候,微信推出小程序,这是一种轻巧的应用程序,独立于苹果的应用程序商店运行,强行分走了苹果公司的一杯羹。


Apple, meanwhile, had disliked but tolerated WeChat’s practice of allowing users to reward generators of content (for example, opinion columns) with small tips. These bypass Apple’s own payments mechanism. On April 19th Apple obliged WeChat to shut down tipping.

虽然勉强容忍微信用户使用小额赞赏的方式回报内容(例如观点专栏)写作者,但实际上苹果并不满意微信这种“打赏”功能,因为它绕开了苹果自己的支付机制。今年4月19日,苹果迫使微信关闭“赞赏”功能。


Another front in the fighting is that the American firm’s mainland app store accepts Alipay, a payment service from China’s Alibaba, but not WeChat’s payment offering. Broadly, WeChat is going from being a social-media platform (akin to Facebook and WhatsApp rolled into one) to becoming a mobile-operating system, putting it on a collision course with Apple. “There is a war going on,” says Mr Brennan.

战争的另一方面是苹果公司的大陆应用商店接受了中国阿里巴巴的支付服务–支付宝,而不是微信支付。广义上来讲,微信正在从一个社交媒体平台(类似于Facebook和WhatsApp)升级为一个移动操作系统进而苹果发生“碰撞”。“战争已经打响。”布雷南说道。

collision / kəˈlɪʒn; kəˋlɪʒən/ n [C, U] ~ (with sb/sth); ~ (between A and B) (instance of) one object or person striking against another; (instance of) colliding; crash (物与物或人与人)相撞,碰撞,撞坏


Who will win such a clash of titans? Rumours are swirling among tech experts about what might happen next. Apple is trying to fortify its position. It is investing heavily in its large network of stores and research labs on the mainland; and it plans to include China in the first wave of countries in which its highly anticipated new iPhone will be launched later this year. But Apple is on the defensive, whereas Tencent is firmly on the attack.

谁会赢得这场巨头间的战争呢?有关接下来事态走向的传闻在技术专家之间流传。苹果正试图巩固自身地位,它向自己的大型网络商店和中国大陆的研究实验中心大量投资,并计划将中国纳入今年晚些时候推出的新款iPhone的第一批国家。但苹果正处在守势,而腾讯则坚定地发起攻击。


Mr Brennan speculates that Tencent might even launch a WeChat phone, which would make Tencent’s offering completely independent of the iPhone. Anywhere else in the world, it would be foolish to go up against the Californian giant. In China, though, the native firm may have the advantage. As Connie Chan of Andreessen Horowitz, an investment fund in Silicon Valley, puts it: “Loyalty is much, much stronger to WeChat than to Apple in China.”

布雷南推测腾讯甚至可能推出微信手机,这将使得腾讯的产品完全独立于iPhone。在世界其他地方,如果有公司胆敢对抗加州巨人,这无疑是愚不可及,但在中国,腾讯可能会有优势。正如在硅谷投资基金公司安德森·霍罗威茨(Andreessen Horowitz)任职的Connie Chan所言:“在中国,用户对微信的忠诚度远远高于苹果。”


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<原文链接:http://www.economist.com/news/business/21722212-wechat-launches-mini-programmes-apple-bans-tipping-tencent-takes-apple-china>


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