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【经济学人】代孕——生命的礼物


代孕,是指将受精卵子植入代孕妈妈子宫,由孕母替他人完成“十月怀胎一朝分娩”的过程。我国有关法律对代孕做了严格的规定。这项技术只能在卫生行政部门批准的医疗机构中实施,只能以医疗为目的,并符合国家计划生育政策、伦理原则和有关法律规定。


代孕——生命的礼物

译者:刘   蕊

校对:谢晓羽

策划:戴秀平


Carrying a child for someone else should be celebrated—and paid for

代孕本应是件值得庆祝的事情,也应有偿化


本文选自 The Economist | 取经号原创翻译

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The earliest known description of surrogacy is an ugly biblical story: in Genesis, the childless Sara sends her husband to bed with her maidservant, Hagar, and takes the child as her own. It is this exploitative version of surrogacy that still shapes attitudes and laws today. Many countries ban it outright, convinced that the surrogate is bound to be harmed, no matter whether she consents. Others allow it, but ban payment. Except in a few places, including Greece, Ukraine and a few American states, the commissioning parents have no legal standing before the birth; even if the child is genetically theirs, the surrogate can change her mind and keep the baby. Several developing countries popular with foreigners in need of a surrogate have started to turn them away.

人们最早对代孕的了解来自于《圣经》中一则丑陋的故事:《创世纪》中,没有子嗣的撒拉(Sara)让自己的丈夫和侍女夏甲(Hagar)同房,并将二人生下的孩子据为己有。这个版本的故事充斥着利用的意味,至今仍影响着人们对代孕的态度和相关法律的设立。许多国家公开禁止代孕行为,认为无论代孕者同意与否,都必将受到伤害。其他国家接受代孕,但禁止有偿代孕。而在希腊、乌克兰和美国少数州等地方,意向父母在孩子出生前是没有任何法律地位的,即使从基因层面上来说孩子是他们的,但代孕者可以改变主意,选择留下这个孩子。不少发展中国家因为能够提供代孕者而受到外国人的追捧,如今这些国家也开始将他们拒之门外。

surrogacy :The earliest known description of surrogacy is an ugly biblical story: in Genesis, the childless Sara sends her husband to bed with her maidservant, Hagar, and takes the child as her own.代孕行为


These restrictions are harmful. By pushing surrogacy to the legal fringes, they make it both more dangerous and more costly, and create legal uncertainty for all, especially the newborn baby who may be deemed parentless and taken into care. Instead, giving the gift of parenthood to those who cannot have it should be celebrated—and regulated sensibly.

这些限制条例百害而无一利。代孕行为被迫游走在法律的边缘,变得更加危险且昂贵。对任何人而言,都将带来法律上的不确定性,尤其是新生儿,他们或将面临无父无母的境地,最终被送往孤儿院。事实上,为那些无法生育的夫妻提供成为父母的机会本应是件值得庆祝的事,当然,也应受到合理规范。


Getting surrogacy right matters more than ever, since demand is rising. That is partly because fewer children are available for adoption, and partly because ideas about what constitutes a family have become more liberal. Surrogates used to be sought out only by heterosexual couples, and only when the woman had a medical problem that meant she could not carry a baby. But the spread of gay marriage has been followed by a rise in male couples turning to surrogates to complete their newly recognized families. And just as more women are becoming single parents with the help of sperm donation, more men are seeking to do so through surrogates.

由于可领养的儿童数量逐渐减少,也由于人们对于家庭构成的观念变得更加开放,代孕需求日益增加,正确处理代孕行为也由此变得尤为重要。过去,只有异性婚姻夫妇在女方身体有问题而无法生小孩的情况下才会寻求代孕。但随着同性婚姻的盛行,越来越多的同性伴侣开始通过代孕构建属于自己的全新家庭。与此同时,越来越多的女性利用他人捐赠的精子成为了单身母亲,而男性也开始利用代孕来实现自己单身父亲的想法。


The modern version of surrogacy is nothing like the tale of Sara and Hagar. Nowadays, surrogates rarely carry babies who are genetically related to them, instead using embryos created in vitro with eggs and sperm from the commissioning parents, or from donors. They almost never change their minds about handing over the baby. On the rare occasion that a deal fails, it is because the commissioning parents pull out.

现在的代孕与撒拉和夏甲故事中的代孕有着天壤之别。在今天,代孕者通常与肚子中的孩子没有任何血缘关系。精子和卵子来自于意向父母或是第三方志愿者,经由试管形成胚胎。代孕者从不改变她们只是代孕的想法。在极少数情况下交易失败,也是因为意向父母最终选择放弃。

commissioning parents:Except in a few places, including Greece, Ukraine and a few American states, the commissioning parents have no legal standing before the birth; even if the child is genetically theirs, the surrogate can change her mind and keep the baby. 委托父母;意向父母

vitroNowadays, surrogates rarely carry babies who are genetically related to them, instead using embryos created in vitro with eggs and sperm from the commissioning parents, or from donors. 在试管内


A modern surrogacy law should recognize those intending to form a family as the legal parents. To protect the surrogate, it should demand that she obtain a doctor’s all-clear and enjoy good medical care. And to avoid disputes, both parties should sign a detailed contract that can be enforced in the courts, setting out in advance what they will do if the fetus is disabled, the surrogate falls ill or the commissioning parents break up.

现代代孕法应当意识到这些问题,授予意向父母相应的法律权利。为保护代孕者,法律应当要求她具备相关医院证明,并享有完善的医疗服务。要想避免纠纷,双方应当签订一份详细且具有法律效力的合约,提前说明,如果孩子生下来有缺陷、代孕者病了或是意向父母离婚的话,之后该怎么办。


Laws should also let the surrogate be paid. Women who become surrogates generally take great satisfaction in helping someone become a parent. But plenty of jobs offer rewards beyond money, and no one suggests they should therefore be done for nothing. The fact that a surrogate in India or Nepal can earn the equivalent often years’ wages by carrying a child for a rich foreigner is a consequence of global inequality, not its cause. Banning commercial surrogacy will not change that.

代孕法还应当确保代孕者得到相应的报酬。代孕者通常很乐意帮助他人成为父母。但许多代孕工作都不会以现金结算,而是采取其他的方式作为报偿。人们认为代孕者不应该白白辛苦一场。事实上,印度或尼泊尔的代孕者如果替国外富豪代孕一次,赚到的钱通常相当于几年的工资。正是全球不平等问题导致了这种现象,而不是这种现象造成了全球不平等。即使禁止以商业为目的进行代孕,也无法改变这一现状。


Better to regulate it properly, and insist that parents returning home with a child born to a surrogate abroad can prove that their babies have been obtained legally and fairly. Becoming a parent should be a joy, not an offence.

妥善管理代孕行为,让那些带着代孕所生的孩子回到家中的父母们能够证明自己的孩子是公正合法的。为人父母本应是件快乐的事情,不应该成为一种犯罪。


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